Baboons (genus Papio) are a morphologically and behaviorally diverse clade of catarrhine monkeys that have experienced hybridization between phenotypically and genetically distinct phylogenetic species. We used high-coverage whole-genome sequences from 225 wild baboons representing 19 geographic localities to investigate population genomics and interspecies gene flow. Our analyses provide an expanded picture of evolutionary reticulation among species and reveal patterns of population structure within and among species, including differential admixture among conspecific populations. We describe the first example of a baboon population with a genetic composition that is derived from three distinct lineages. The results reveal processes, both ancient and recent, that produced the observed mismatch between phylogenetic relationships based on matrilineal, patrilineal, and biparental inheritance. We also identified several candidate genes that may contribute to species-specific phenotypes.