Fungicides: An Overlooked Pesticide Class?

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  • Jochen P. Zubrod, University of Koblenz-Landau
  • ,
  • Mirco Bundschuh, University of Koblenz-Landau, Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet
  • ,
  • Gertie Arts, Wageningen University and Research Centre
  • ,
  • Carsten A. Brühl, University of Koblenz-Landau
  • ,
  • Gwenaël Imfeld, Université de Strasbourg
  • ,
  • Anja Knäbel, University of Koblenz-Landau
  • ,
  • Sylvain Payraudeau, Université de Strasbourg
  • ,
  • Jes J. Rasmussen
  • Jason Rohr, University of South Florida Tampa, University of Notre Dame
  • ,
  • Andreas Scharmüller, University of Koblenz-Landau
  • ,
  • Kelly Smalling, US Geol Survey, United States Geological Survey
  • ,
  • Sebastian Stehle, University of Koblenz-Landau
  • ,
  • Ralf Schulz, University of Koblenz-Landau
  • ,
  • Ralf B. Schäfer, University of Koblenz-Landau

Fungicides are indispensable to global food security and their use is forecasted to intensify. Fungicides can reach aquatic ecosystems and occur in surface water bodies in agricultural catchments throughout the entire growing season due to their frequent, prophylactic application. However, in comparison to herbicides and insecticides, the exposure to and effects of fungicides have received less attention. We provide an overview of the risk of fungicides to aquatic ecosystems covering fungicide exposure (i.e., environmental fate, exposure modeling, and mitigation measures) as well as direct and indirect effects of fungicides on microorganisms, macrophytes, invertebrates, and vertebrates. We show that fungicides occur widely in aquatic systems, that the accuracy of predicted environmental concentrations is debatable, and that fungicide exposure can be effectively mitigated. We additionally demonstrate that fungicides can be highly toxic to a broad range of organisms and can pose a risk to aquatic biota. Finally, we outline central research gaps that currently challenge our ability to predict fungicide exposure and effects, promising research avenues, and shortcomings of the current environmental risk assessment for fungicides.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftEnvironmental Science and Technology
Vol/bind53
Nummer7
Sider (fra-til)3347-3365
Antal sider19
ISSN0013-936X
DOI
StatusUdgivet - apr. 2019

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