Factors affecting urinary tt-muconic acid detection among benzene exposed workers at gasoline stations

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  • Sunisa Chaiklieng, Khon Kaen University
  • ,
  • Pornnapa Suggaravetsiri, Khon Kaen University
  • ,
  • Norbert Kaminski, Michigan State University
  • ,
  • Herman Autrup

Trans, trans-muconic acid (tt-MA) is a metabolite that is widely used as a biomarker to identify low exposure to benzene, a human carcinogen. This study aimed to investigate occupational factors related to the urinary tt-MA detection of benzene exposed workers in gasoline stations. Spot urine samples were collected and analyzed for tt-MA using a high performance liquid chromatography. Additional data were collected via subject interviews using a structured questionnaire. The personal benzene concentration was measured and analyzed by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. Results showed that, among the 170 workers, tt-MA was detected in 24.7% of workers and the concentration ranged from 23.0 to 1127.8 µg/g creatinine. Over 25% of those detections possessing tt-MA exceeding the recommended 500 µg/g creatinine was safe. A multiple logistic regression analysis identified that factors significantly associated with the detectable tt-MA were having no other part-time jobs (ORadj = 4.2), personal benzene concentrations of 0.05 ppm or higher (ORadj = 10.3), close to fuel nozzle during refuelling (ORadj = 93.7), and no job training (ORadj = 2.74). Safety training is recommended for those tt-MA detected workers or under a reference benzene concentration of 0.05 ppm or higher. The proposed reference of occupational action level to benzene exposure is 0.05 ppm and compliance could be assessed tt-MA for biomonitoring of those benzene exposed workers.

TidsskriftInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Antal sider11
StatusUdgivet - 1 nov. 2019

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