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Experimental warming differentially affects vegetative and reproductive phenology of tundra plants

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  • Courtney G. Collins, University of Colorado Boulder
  • ,
  • Sarah C. Elmendorf, University of Colorado Boulder
  • ,
  • Robert D. Hollister, Grand Valley State University
  • ,
  • Greg H.R. Henry, University of British Columbia
  • ,
  • Karin Clark, Government of the Northwest Territories
  • ,
  • Anne D. Bjorkman, University of Gothenburg
  • ,
  • Isla H. Myers-Smith, University of Edinburgh
  • ,
  • Janet S. Prevéy, United States Geological Survey
  • ,
  • Isabel W. Ashton, National Park Service, Inventory & Monitoring Division, Rapid City, SD
  • ,
  • Jakob J. Assmann
  • ,
  • Juha M. Alatalo, Qatar University
  • ,
  • Michele Carbognani, University of Parma
  • ,
  • Chelsea Chisholm, ETH, Zurich
  • ,
  • Elisabeth J. Cooper, UiT The Arctic University of Norway
  • ,
  • Chiara Forrester, University of Colorado Boulder
  • ,
  • Ingibjörg Svala Jónsdóttir, University of Iceland, University Centre in Svalbard
  • ,
  • Kari Klanderud, Norwegian University of Life Sciences
  • ,
  • Christopher W. Kopp, University of British Columbia
  • ,
  • Carolyn Livensperger, United States Geological Survey
  • ,
  • Marguerite Mauritz, University of Texas at El Paso
  • ,
  • Jeremy L. May, Florida International University
  • ,
  • Ulf Molau, University of Gothenburg
  • ,
  • Steven F. Oberbauer, Florida International University
  • ,
  • Emily Ogburn, University of Colorado Boulder
  • ,
  • Zoe A. Panchen, University of British Columbia
  • ,
  • Alessandro Petraglia, University of Parma
  • ,
  • Eric Post, University of California at Davis
  • ,
  • Christian Rixen, Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research
  • ,
  • Heidi Rodenhizer, Northern Arizona University
  • ,
  • Edward A.G. Schuur, Northern Arizona University
  • ,
  • Philipp Semenchuk, University of Vienna
  • ,
  • Jane G. Smith, University of Colorado Boulder
  • ,
  • Heidi Steltzer, Fort Lewis College
  • ,
  • Ørjan Totland, University of Bergen
  • ,
  • Marilyn D. Walker, HOMER Energy
  • ,
  • Jeffrey M. Welker, University of Alaska Anchorage, University of Oulu
  • ,
  • Katharine N. Suding, University of Colorado Boulder

Rapid climate warming is altering Arctic and alpine tundra ecosystem structure and function, including shifts in plant phenology. While the advancement of green up and flowering are well-documented, it remains unclear whether all phenophases, particularly those later in the season, will shift in unison or respond divergently to warming. Here, we present the largest synthesis to our knowledge of experimental warming effects on tundra plant phenology from the International Tundra Experiment. We examine the effect of warming on a suite of season-wide plant phenophases. Results challenge the expectation that all phenophases will advance in unison to warming. Instead, we find that experimental warming caused: (1) larger phenological shifts in reproductive versus vegetative phenophases and (2) advanced reproductive phenophases and green up but delayed leaf senescence which translated to a lengthening of the growing season by approximately 3%. Patterns were consistent across sites, plant species and over time. The advancement of reproductive seasons and lengthening of growing seasons may have significant consequences for trophic interactions and ecosystem function across the tundra.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
Artikelnummer3442
TidsskriftNature Communications
Vol/bind12
ISSN2041-1723
DOI
StatusUdgivet - jun. 2021

Bibliografisk note

Funding Information:
We thank Maja Sundqvist, Aimee Classen, Nathan Sanders, Warren Sconiers, Nyika Campbell, William Bownman, and many additional field assistants for their help in collecting phenology data. We thank Dr. Jessica Savage for helpful comments and feedback on an earlier version of the manuscript. We thank Caitlin White for assistance with the climate infilling code. Funding was provided by the following: Norwegian Research Council (“SnoEco” project, number 230970), the FRAM Centre Terrestrial Flagship (“SnoEcoFen” project), and the Norwegian Centre for International Cooperation in Education (SIU) High North Programme (“JANATEX” project, number HNP2013/10092) to Elisabeth J. Cooper. A.W. Garfield Weston Foundation Postdoctoral fellowship to Zoe A. Panchen. The U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Terrestrial Ecosystem Science (TES) Program Award #DESC0006982, #DE-SC0014085, #DE-SC0020227, and an NSF PLR Arctic System Science Research #1931333; NSF NNA: LTREB Award # 1754839 to Edward (Ted) Schuur and Marguerite Mauritz. The National Science Foundation Office of Polar Programs Grants #PLR-1007672, 0902096, and 0902184 to Heidi Steltzer. National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowships (GRFP) to Carolyn Livensperger and Chiara Forester. A Semper Ardens grant from the Carlsberg Foundation to Chelsea Chisholm. Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) Program funding to Emily Ogburn. National Science Foundation grant #’s 9907185, 632277, 856710, 1432982, 1504381, and 1836898 to Steven Oberbauer and Jeffrey Welker. National Science Foundation grant #’s 9714103, 632263, 856516, 1432277, 1504224, 1836839 to Robert Hollister. A UK Natural Environment Research Council ShrubTundra Grant (NE/M016323/1) to Isla Myers-Smith. A Stiftelsen Oscar och Lili Lamms Minne research grant to Juha Atalo. Additional funding provided by the Government of the Northwest Territories, the University Centre in Svalbard. Publication of this article was funded by the University of Colorado Boulder Libraries Open Access Fund, Katharine Suding, and Bob Hollister. The appropriate permits to access research sites were obtained whenever necessary and the permits/ permissions necessary varied among the different sites. Specific permitting information providing access to field sites is as follows: Adventdalen: Store Norske Spitsbergen Kullkompani A/S 06/792/051.5/PCF and Longyearbyen Local Styre (2009) 401-2 sak 34/ 09, Alexandra Fjord: Qikiqtani Inuit Association and Nunavut Dept of Environment (1989), Gavia Pass: Stelvio National Park (2008), Latnjajaure: Abisko Scientific Research Station permission for long-term experiment “Linking plant and soil ecology” (1994), Kangerlussaq:Government of Greenland (2002), Niwot Ridge: University of Colorado Mountain Research Station and Arapaho and Roosevelt National Forests Special Use Permit (1994), White Mountains: Inyo National Forest Special Use Permit (2014), Endalen: Longyearbyen Lokal Styre (2014) 456-2-X70, Toolik Lake: Bureau of Land Management Alaska Northern Field Office (1994), Atqasuk & Utqiagvik: Ukpeagvik Iñupiat Corporation (1994), Healy: Site permissions under LAS-24220 issued to the University of Alaska by the State of Alaska Department of Natural Resources (2004), Jakobshorn & Val Bercla: Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL (1992), Daring Lake: Wek’eezhii Land and Water Board (2009), Imnavait Creek: Bureau of Land Management Central Yukon Field Office (2009)#FF09S602, Faroe Islands: Museum of Natural History of the Faroe Islands (2001), Finse: Hallingskarvet National Park Board (2006).

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© 2021, The Author(s).

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Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

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