Estimation of Opening Discharge Coefficient of Naturally Ventilated Dairy Buildings by Response Surface Methodology

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  • Qianying Yi, Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Bioeconomy
  • ,
  • Guoqiang Zhang
  • Hao Li, China Agricultural University, Beijing
  • ,
  • Xiaoshuai Wang
  • David Janke, Leibniz-Institute for Agricultural Engineering, Potsdam, Tyskland
  • Barbara Amon, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, University of Zielona Gora, Tyskland
  • Sabrina Hempel, Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering Potsdam-Bornim e.V. (ATB)
  • ,
  • Thomas Amon, Department of Engineering for Livestock Management, Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Bioeconomy (ATB), Institut of Animal Hygiene and Environmental Health, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Freie Universität

The discharge coefficient (C d) is a characteristic parameter of an opening, which represents the effect of flow contraction and frictional losses when the flow goes across the opening. It is an important parameter for the ventilation rate determination when using the orifice equation method. The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between C d and its potential influencing factors, i.e. opening ratio (r), building length to width ratio (α), wind speed (U), and wind direction (θ), and to evaluate the sensitivity of each factor on the C d for naturally ventilated dairy buildings (NVDBs). The investigations were performed using the response surface methodology together with Box-Behnken Design and Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation methods. A second-order polynomial response surface model for the estimation of the discharge coefficient was developed and verified. The results showed that the C d was significantly affected by the individual factors of r and θ, with more sensitivity to r when r > 42.5%. By contrast, the effects from the individual factors of α and U on C d were insignificant. In addition, the interaction effects between r and θ, and between α and θ on C d were also identified. It was concluded that the effects from both individual factors and interactions are required to be considered in the estimation of the opening discharge coefficient for NVDBs.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
Artikelnummer105224
TidsskriftComputers and Electronics in Agriculture
Vol/bind169
Antal sider9
ISSN0168-1699
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 2020

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