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Electroactive Scaffolds for Neurogenesis and Myogenesis: Graphene-Based Nanomaterials

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One of the major issues in tissue engineering is constructing a functional scaffold to support cell growth and also provide proper synergistic guidance cues. Graphene-based nanomaterials have emerged as biocompatible and electroactive scaffolds for neurogenesis and myogenesis, due to their excellent tunable chemical, physical, and mechanical properties. This review first assesses the recent investigations focusing on the fabrication and applications of graphene-based nanomaterials for neurogenesis and myogenesis, in the form of either 2D films, 3D scaffolds, or composite architectures. Besides, because of their outstanding electrical properties, graphene family materials are particularly suitable for designing electroactive scaffolds that could provide proper electrical stimulation (i.e., electrical or photo stimuli) to promote the regeneration of excitable neurons and muscle cells. Therefore, the effects and mechanism of electrical and/or photo stimulations on neurogenesis and myogenesis are followed. Furthermore, studies on their biocompatibilities and toxicities especially to neural and muscle cells are evaluated. Finally, the future challenges and perspectives in facilitating the development of clinical translation of graphene-family nanomaterials in treating neurodegenerative and muscle diseases are discussed.

StatusUdgivet - 28 nov. 2018

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