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Effects of an environmentally relevant PFAS mixture on dopamine and steroid hormone levels in exposed mice

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DOI

  • Randi Grønnestad, Norwegian University of Science and Technology
  • ,
  • Silje Modahl Johanson, Norwegian University of Life Sciences
  • ,
  • Mette H.B. Müller, Norwegian University of Life Sciences
  • ,
  • Daniel Schlenk, University of California at Riverside
  • ,
  • Philip Tanabe, University of California at Riverside
  • ,
  • Åse Krøkje, Norwegian University of Science and Technology
  • ,
  • Veerle L.B. Jaspers, Norwegian University of Science and Technology
  • ,
  • Bjørn Munro Jenssen
  • Erik M. Ræder, Norwegian University of Life Sciences
  • ,
  • Jan L. Lyche, Norwegian University of Life Sciences
  • ,
  • Qingyang Shi, University of California at Riverside
  • ,
  • Augustine Arukwe, Norwegian University of Science and Technology

In the present study, we investigated the dopaminergic and steroid hormone systems of A/J mice fed environmentally relevant concentrations of a perfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) mixture over a period of 10 weeks. The PFAS mixture was chosen based on measured PFAS concentrations in earthworms at a Norwegian skiing area (Trondheim) and consisted of eight different PFAS. Dietary exposure to PFAS led to lower total brain dopamine (DA) concentrations in male mice, as compared to control. On the transcript level, brain tyrosine hydroxylase (th) of PFAS exposed males was reduced, compared to the control group. No significant differences were observed on the transcript levels of enzymes responsible for DA metabolism, namely – monoamine oxidase (maoa and maob) and catechol-O methyltransferase (comt). We detected increased transcript level for DA receptor 2 (dr2) in PFAS exposed females, while expression of DA receptor 1 (dr1), DA transporter (dat) and vesicular monoamine transporter (vmat) were not affected by PFAS exposure. Regarding the steroid hormones, plasma and muscle testosterone (T), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and 17β-estradiol (E2) levels, as well as transcripts for estrogen receptors (esr1 and esr2), gonadotropin releasing hormone (gnrh) and aromatase (cyp19) were unaltered by the PFAS treatment. These results indicate that exposure to PFAS doses, comparable to previous observation in earthworms at a Norwegian skiing area, may alter the dopaminergic system of mice with overt consequences for health, general physiology, cognitive behavior, reproduction and metabolism.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
Artikelnummer115670
TidsskriftToxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Vol/bind428
ISSN0041-008X
DOI
StatusUdgivet - okt. 2021

Bibliografisk note

Funding Information:
The work was supported by a PhD fellowship provided by the Faculty of Natural Sciences, NTNU, Norway (project no. 70440378 ). We also received funding from Nansenfondet (UNIFOR , application no. 5353 ) for parts of this project. We thank Randi Røsbak at the Department of Biology at NTNU for technical assistance in the laboratory.

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© 2021 The Authors

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