Effect of contingent electrical stimulation on jaw muscle activity during sleep: A pilot study with a randomized controlled trial design

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Abstract Objective. To determine the effect of contingent electrical stimulation (CES) on jaw muscle activity during sleep in a double-blinded randomized controlled trial (RCT). Materials and methods. Eleven patients with myofascial TMD (mean age 37 years) and with a clinical diagnosis of bruxism were included. EMG activity (Grindcare®) was recorded from the anterior temporalis muscle during sleep and analyzed online. Jaw muscle activity related to clenching or grinding triggered an electrical square-wave pulse train (450 ms) adjusted to a clear, but non-painful intensity. TMD patients were randomized into two groups: active treatment with CES or no CES (placebo). Number of EMG episodes/hour sleep was the primary outcome parameter. The following variables were assessed as secondary outcome parameters; number of painful muscles, maximum pain-free jaw opening, characteristic pain intensity, depression scores and Oral Health Impact Profile scores. Numerical Rating Scale scores for self-reported pain and muscle tension were registered for at least 4 nights per week during the experiment. Results. The number of EMG episodes/hour sleep was significantly reduced (52 ± 12%) in the CES group during the sessions with CES (ANOVA: p = 0.021) compared to baseline. There were no significant differences in the secondary outcome parameters (ANOVA: p > 0.513) or pain or muscle tension scores between groups (p = 0.645). The average duration of sleep hours during the nights with and without CES was not significantly different (p = 0.646). Conclusions. These results demonstrate a significant inhibitory effect of CES on jaw muscle EMG activity during sleep in a RCT, but with no effects on self-reported pain.
TidsskriftActa Odontologica Scandinavica
Sider (fra-til)1050-1062
Antal sider13
StatusUdgivet - sep. 2013

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