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Differences in the urinary metabolome and proteome between wet and dry nights in children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis and nocturnal polyuria

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BACKGROUND: Nocturnal enuresis (NE) is a common disease with multiple pathogenic mechanisms. This study aimed to compare levels of metabolites and proteins between wet and dry nights in urine samples from children with monosymptomatic NE (MNE).

METHODS: Ten boys with MNE and nocturnal polyuria (age: 7.6 ± 1.3 years) collected their total nighttime urine production during a wet and a dry night. Untargeted metabolomics and proteomics were performed on the urine samples by liquid chromatography coupled with high-mass accuracy tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).

RESULTS: On wet nights, we found reduced urine osmolality (P = 0.025) and increased excretion of urinary potassium and sodium by a factor of, respectively, 2.1 (P = 0.038) and 1.9 (P = 0.19) compared with dry nights. LC-MS identified 59 metabolites and 84 proteins with significantly different levels between wet and dry nights (fold change (FC) < 0.67 or > 1.5, P < 0.05). Some compounds were validated by different methodologies. During wet nights, levels of compounds related to oxidative stress and blood pressure, including adrenalin, were increased. We found reduced levels of aquaporin-2 on wet nights. The FCs in the 59 metabolites were positively correlated to the FCs in the same metabolites identified in urine samples obtained during the evening preceding wet and dry nights.

CONCLUSIONS: Oxidative stress, which in the literature has been associated with nocturia and disturbances in sleep, might be increased during wet nights in children with MNE. We further found evidence of increased sympathetic activity. The mechanisms related to having wet nights in children with MNE seem complex, and both free water and solute handling appear to be important. A higher resolution version of the Graphical abstract is available as Supplementary information.

TidsskriftPediatric nephrology (Berlin, Germany)
Sider (fra-til)3347-3358
Antal sider12
StatusUdgivet - okt. 2023

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© 2023. The Author(s).

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