Current, experimental, and future treatments in inflammatory bowel disease: a clinical review

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Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) may result from dysregulated mucosal immune responses directed toward the resident intestinal microbiota. This review describes the hallmark immunobiology of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis as well as therapeutic targets and mechanisms of action for current, experimental, and future treatments in IBD. Conventional therapies include 5-aminosalicylic acid, glucocorticosteroids, thiopurines, and methotrexate. Since 1997, monoclonal antibodies have gained widespread use. These consist of antibodies directed against pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin (IL)-12, and IL-23, or anti-homing antibodies directed against α4β7 integrin. Emerging oral therapies include modulators of intracellular signal transduction such as Janus kinase inhibitors. Vitamin D may help to regulate innate and adaptive immune responses. Modulation of the intestinal microbiota, using live microorganisms (probiotics), substrates for the colonic microbiota (prebiotics), or fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), is in development. Dietary supplements are in widespread use, but providing evidence for their benefit is challenging. Stem cell treatment and nervous stimulation are promising future treatments.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftImmunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
Vol/bind40
Nummer6
Sider (fra-til)446-460
Antal sider15
ISSN0892-3973
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 2018

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