Cumulative risk regression in case–cohort studies using pseudo-observations

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Case–cohort studies are useful when information on certain risk factors is difficult or costly to ascertain. Particularly, a case–cohort study may be well suited in situations where several case series are of interest, e.g. in studies with competing risks, because the same sub-cohort may serve as a comparison group for all case series. Previous analyses of this kind of sampled cohort data most often involved estimation of rate ratios based on a Cox regression model. However, with competing risks this method will not provide parameters that directly describe the association between covariates and cumulative risks. In this paper, we study regression analysis of cause-specific cumulative risks in case–cohort studies using pseudo-observations. We focus mainly on the situation with competing risks. However, as a by-product, we also develop a method by which absolute mortality risks may be analyzed directly from case–cohort survival data. We adjust for the case–cohort sampling by inverse sampling probabilities applied to a generalized estimation equation. The large-sample properties of the proposed estimator are developed and small-sample properties are evaluated in a simulation study. We apply the methodology to study the effect of a specific diet component and a specific gene on the absolute risk of atrial fibrillation.

TidsskriftLifetime Data Analysis
Sider (fra-til)639-658
Antal sider20
StatusUdgivet - 2020

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