Association studies have indicated profound effects of copy number variations (CNVs) on various phenotypes in different species. In this study, we identified the CNV distributions and expression levels of guanylate-binding protein 6 (GBP6) associated with the growth traits of Chinese cattle. The results showed that the phenotypic values of body size and weight of Xianan (XN) cattle were higher than those of Nanyang (NY) cattle. The medium CNV types were mostly identified in the XN and NY breeds, but their CNV distributions were significantly different (adjusted p < 0.05). The association analysis revealed that the body weight, cannon circumference and chest circumference of XN cattle had significantly different values in different CNV types (p < 0.05), with CNV gain types (Log2 2−∆∆Ct > 0.5) displaying superior phenotypic values. We also found that transcription levels varied in different tissues (p < 0.001) and the CNV gain types showed the highest relative gene expression levels in the muscle tissue, consistent with the highest phenotypic values of body weight and cannon circumference among the three CNV types. Consequently, our results suggested that CNV gain types of GBP6 could be used as the candidate markers in the cattle-breeding program for growth traits.