Constitutive and latent immune mechanisms exert ‘silent’ control of virus infections in the central nervous system

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Viral infections in the central nervous system (CNS) can lead to severe disease manifestations often mediated by a combination of viral cytopathic effects and immunopathology. Moreover, neuronal tissue and brain activities are highly sensitive to excessive inflammation that disturb homeostasis. Immune responses to virus infections in the CNS should therefore be tightly balanced and limited in magnitude and duration to avoid immunopathology and tissue damage. Recent data from genetic studies of patients with viral infections in the CNS as well as experimental cell and animal models have provided evidence of non-redundant roles for constitutive and latent immune mechanisms, which mediate a first line of antiviral control without significantly triggering inflammatory activities. Collectively, accumulating data suggest the existence of a layer of immune mechanisms in the CNS exerting immediate control of infection, hence buffering the need for activation of more potent immune reactions with inherent potential to induce immunopathology and disease.

TidsskriftCurrent Opinion in Immunology
Sider (fra-til)158-166
Antal sider9
StatusUdgivet - okt. 2021

Bibliografisk note

Funding Information:
S.R.P. was supported by grants from the European Research Council ( 786602 ), the Lundbeck Foundation ( R276-2018-192 ), and The Novo Nordisk Foundation ( NNF18OC0030274 , NNF20OC0063436 , NNF20OC0064301 ). THM was funded by The Independent Research Fund Denmark ( 0134-00006B ), Aarhus University Research Fund ( AUFF-E-2015-FLS-66 ), The Lundbeck Foundation ( R268-2016-3927 ), and The Novo Nordisk Foundation ( NNF20OC0064890 ).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Elsevier Ltd

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