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Co-extruded wheat/okra composite blends result in soft, cohesive and resilient crumbs rich in health-promoting compounds

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  • Kang Xu, Shandong Agricultural University, University of Guelph
  • ,
  • Hawi Debelo, North Carolina State University
  • ,
  • Laura Roman
  • Mengmeng Guo, Shandong Agricultural University, University of Guelph
  • ,
  • Mario G. Ferruzzi, North Carolina State University
  • ,
  • Mario M. Martinez

This work investigates the partial solubilization of cell wall polysaccharides in okra flours and the changes in the profile of free and bound phenolics through twin-screw extrusion. The comparison between extruded wheat flour-native okra flour (EWF-OF) and extruded wheat flour-extruded okra flour (EWF-EOF) composite blends revealed that extrusion led to an increase of soluble dietary fiber from 7.76 to 10.02 g/100 g. Extrusion of okra also resulted in a significant increase of free and bound phenolic acids, the latter consisting mostly of ferulic acid, as well as the thermal degradation of free epigallocatechin, and the binding of a small portion of quercetin-3-O-glucoside likely to a carbohydrate fraction. Bread crumbs from EWF-EOF (at 15% replacement level) exhibited a significantly lower hardness and higher elasticity, cohesiveness and resilience (from 28.28 N, 0.94, 0.49 and 0.17 to 7.54 N, 0.99, 0.70 and 0.35, respectively), which closely resembled the textural attributes of wheat bread.

TidsskriftFood Chemistry
StatusUdgivet - dec. 2021

Bibliografisk note

Funding Information:
This research was funded by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) Discovery program; grant number 401499 . The authors would like to thank Iris Joye for her kind access to the baking facilities.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 The Author(s)

Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

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