Clinical features and disease severity in patients with mosaic neurofibromatosis type 1: a single-center study and literature review

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskrift/Konferencebidrag i tidsskrift /Bidrag til avisReviewForskningpeer review


Background: The mosaic form of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is called mosaic NF1 (MNF1). No specific MNF1 follow-up guidelines exist. It is debatable if patients with MNF1 should be clinically examined and undergo follow-up in accordance with the standard NF1 guidelines, as MNF1 patients more often may develop more benign phenotypes and thereby less disease-associated complications including cognitive impairment. We discussed the need for a specific MNF1 follow-up guideline with focus on frequency of plexiform neurofibromas and NF1-associated complications. Method: A systematic retrospective data collection in a MNF1 cohort from one of two Danish national centers of NF1 Expertise was completed. Data collected included demographics, clinical features including NF1 diagnostic criteria and NF1-associated complications. Recent literature in the field was reviewed. Results: We identified 17 patients with MNF1 with a median age of 37 years [4; 66]. Eleven (65%) were females. Five patients (30%) had a plexiform neurofibroma. The median age at detection of plexiform neurofibroma was 30 years [14; 60]. Nine (53%) had at least one NF1-related complication; scoliosis, hypertension, ADHD, learning disability, language delay, autism and delay in gross and fine motor function development. We reviewed nine articles. In total, 126 cases were described within three case-series. Nineteen (15%) had a plexiform neurofibroma and in total, 23 NF1-associated complications were reported including language delay, learning disability and skeletal abnormalities. Furthermore, from the literature it was evident that the diagnosing of MNF1 varies among physicians and across countries. Conclusion: Patients with MNF1 present with plexiform neurofibromas and other NF1-related complications with a frequency requiring that follow-up of MNF1 patients should be in accordance with the standard NF1 guideline in both childhood and adulthood. Physicians should be aware of cognitive impairment as a complication to MNF1. To develop a specific MNF1 follow-up guideline, there is a need for an international consensus on the diagnostic criteria for MNF1 and a follow-up study conducted in a larger MNF1 cohort.

TidsskriftOrphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Antal sider9
StatusUdgivet - apr. 2021

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