Clinical and genetic evaluation of Danish patients with pycnodysostosis

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BACKGROUND: Pycnodysostosis is a rare autosomal recessive osteosclerotic skeletal dysplasia caused by variants in the cathepsin K gene (CTSK). Clinical features include short stature, bone fragility, characteristic facial features and acro-osteolysis of the distal phalanges. Usually, patients suffer from multiple bone fractures. The purpose of this study was to describe the Danish population of pycnodysostosis patients with respect to genotype, phenotype and the prevalence of complications. We collected medical history, performed clinical examination, collected blood- and urine samples, performed dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan (DXA) and high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography scan (HRpQCT) and obtained clinical photos. Information about complications, bone mineral density and bone markers in the blood were collected and analysed.

RESULTS: Ten patients with a median age of 32 years ranging from five to 51 years participated. The pycnodysostosis phenotype varied with respect to the number of bone fractures and degree of complications. DXA and HRpQCT showed high bone mineral density. A tendency of growth hormone treatment escalating growth and increasing final height was seen. A marker of bone resorption measured in blood was within normal range in nine patients and elevated in one patient. A novel pathogenic variant in CSTK causing pycnodysostosis was detected in two related patients. Moreover information about the patients' own health perception was reported. An example being they rated their mental health to be good despite multiple bone fractures.

CONCLUSION: This study provides information about genotypes and phenotypes in a Danish pycnodysostosis population. It reports new data about the complications such as bone fractures and it elucidates the levels of bone turnover markers as well as the density of the bones in one of the biggest cohort of pycnodysostosis patients ever published. An individualised approach to treatment in this patient group is necessary as the phenotype including complications varies between patients. Additional studies are needed to further understand genotype-phenotype correlations.

TidsskriftEuropean Journal of Medical Genetics
Sider (fra-til)104135
StatusUdgivet - feb. 2021

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