Characteristics associated with serological COVID-19 vaccine response and durability in an older population with significant comorbidity: the Danish Nationwide ENFORCE Study

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskrift/Konferencebidrag i tidsskrift /Bidrag til avisTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

DOI

  • Ole Schmeltz Søgaard
  • Joanne Reekie, Københavns Universitet
  • ,
  • Isik Somuncu Johansen, Syddansk Universitet
  • ,
  • Henrik Nielsen, Aalborg Universitet
  • ,
  • Thomas Benfield, Københavns Universitet
  • ,
  • Lothar Wiese, Sjællands Universitetshospital
  • ,
  • Nina Breinholt Stærke
  • ,
  • Kasper Iversen, Københavns Universitet
  • ,
  • Kamille Fogh, Sjællands Universitetshospital
  • ,
  • Jacob Bodilsen, Aalborg Universitet
  • ,
  • Mette Iversen, Sjællands Universitetshospital
  • ,
  • Lene Surland Knudsen, Sjællands Universitetshospital
  • ,
  • Vibeke Klastrup
  • ,
  • Fredrikke Dam Larsen, Aarhus Universitet
  • ,
  • Sidsel Dahl Andersen
  • Astrid Korning Hvidt
  • ,
  • Signe Rode Andreasen
  • ,
  • Lone Wulff Madsen, Syddansk Universitet
  • ,
  • Susan Olaf Lindvig, Syddansk Universitet
  • ,
  • Anne Øvrehus, Syddansk Universitet
  • ,
  • Sisse Rye Ostrowski, Københavns Universitet
  • ,
  • Christiane Abildgaard, Syddansk Universitet
  • ,
  • Charlotte Matthews, Københavns Universitet
  • ,
  • Tomas O. Jensen, Københavns Universitet
  • ,
  • Dorthe Raben, Københavns Universitet
  • ,
  • Christian Erikstrup
  • Thea K. Fischer, Sjællands Universitetshospital, Københavns Universitet
  • ,
  • Martin Tolstrup
  • Lars Østergaard
  • Jens Lundgren, Københavns Universitet
  • ,
  • ENFORCE Writing Group

Objectives: To identify individual characteristics associated with serological COVID-19 vaccine responsiveness and the durability of vaccine-induced antibodies. Methods: Adults without history of SARS-CoV-2 infection from the Danish population scheduled for SARS-CoV-2 vaccination were enrolled in this parallel group, phase 4 study. SARS-CoV-2 Spike IgG and Spike-ACE2-receptor-blocking antibodies were measured at days 0, 21, 90, and 180. Vaccine responsiveness was categorized according to Spike IgG and Spike-ACE2-receptor-blocking levels at day 90 after first vaccination. Nondurable vaccine response was defined as day-90 responders who no longer had significant responses by day 180. Results: Of 6544 participants completing two vaccine doses (median age 64 years; interquartile range: 54–75), 3654 (55.8%) received BTN162b2, 2472 (37.8%) mRNA-1273, and 418 (6.4%) ChAdOx1 followed by an mRNA vaccine. Levels of both types of antibodies increased from baseline to day 90 and then decreased to day 180. The decrease was more pronounced for levels of Spike-ACE2-receptor-blocking antibodies than for Spike IgG. Proportions with vaccine hyporesponsiveness and lack of durable response were 5.0% and 12.1% for Spike IgG and 12.7% and 39.6% for Spike-ACE2-receptor-blocking antibody levels, respectively. Male sex, vaccine type, and number of comorbidities were associated with all four outcomes. Additionally, age ≥75 years was associated with hyporesponsiveness for Spike-ACE2-receptor-blocking antibodies (adjusted odds ratio: 1.59; 95% confidence interval: 1.25–2.01) but not for Spike IgG. Discussion: Comorbidity, male sex, and vaccine type were risk factors for hyporesponsiveness and nondurable response to COVID-19 vaccination. The functional activity of vaccine-induced antibodies declined with increasing age and had waned to pre-second-vaccination levels for most individuals after 6 months.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftClinical Microbiology and Infection
Vol/bind28
Nummer8
Sider (fra-til)1126-1133
Antal sider8
ISSN1198-743X
DOI
StatusUdgivet - aug. 2022

Bibliografisk note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the Danish Ministry of Health (document 150, parliamentary year 2020/2021, the Danish Parliament). HN declares participation on advisory board meetings with GSK and MSD. TB declares receipt of unrestricted research or travel grants from GSK, Pfizer, Gilead Sciences, and MSD; being principal investigator on trials conducted by Boehringer Ingelheim, Roche, Novartis, and Kancera; being a board member for Pentabase and an advisory board member for Janssen and AstraZeneca; receiving consulting fees from GSK and Pfizer; receiving donation of study drug from Eli Lilly; and receiving honoraria for lectures from GSK, Pfizer, Gilead Sciences, Boehringer Ingelheim, Abbvie, and AstraZeneca. All other authors declare no conflicts of interest.

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© 2022 The Author(s)

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