CD46 isoforms influence the mode of entry by human herpesvirus 6A/B in T cells

Litten Sørensen Rossen, Vivien Schack, Katrine Kyd Holstein Thuesen, Bettina Bundgaard, Per Brøndsted Höllsberg*

*Corresponding author af dette arbejde

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskrift/Konferencebidrag i tidsskrift /Bidrag til avisTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review


CD46 is a receptor for human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) and is in some cells also important for infection with HHV-6B. CD46 has several isoforms of which the most commonly expressed can be distinguished by expression of a BC domain or a C domain in a serine-threonine-proline-rich (STP) extracellular region. Using a SupT1 CD46 CRISPRCas9 knockout model system reconstituted with specific CD46 isoforms, we demonstrated that HHV-6A infection was more efficient when BC isoforms were expressed as opposed to C isoforms, measured by higher levels of intracellular viral transcripts and recovery of more progeny virus. Although the B domain contains several O-glycosylations, mutations of Ser and Thr residues did not prevent infection with HHV-6A. The HHV-6A infection was blocked by inhibitors of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. In contrast, infection with HHV-6B was preferentially promoted by C isoforms mediating fusion-from-without, and this infection was less affected by inhibitors of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Taken together, HHV-6A preferred BC isoforms, mediating endocytosis, whereas HHV-6B preferred C isoforms, mediating fusion-from-without. This demonstrates that the STP region of CD46 is important for regulating the mode of infection in SupT1 cells and suggests an epigenetic regulation of the host susceptibility to HHV-6A and HHV-6B infection. IMPORTANCE CD46 is the receptor used by human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) during infection of T cells, but it is also involved in infection of certain T cells by HHV-6B. The gene for CD46 allows expression of several variants of CD46, known as isoforms, but whether the isoforms matter for infection of T cells is unknown. We used a genetic approach to delete CD46 from T cells and reconstituted them with separate isoforms to study them individually. We expressed the isoforms known as BC and C, which are distinguished by the potential inclusion of a B domain in the CD46 molecule. We demonstrate that HHV-6A prefers the BC isoform to infect T cells, and this occurs predominantly by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. In contrast, HHV-6B prefers the C isoform and infects predominantly by fusion-from-without. Thus, CD46 isoforms may affect susceptibility of T cells to infection with HHV-6A and HHV-6B.

TidsskriftJournal of Virology
StatusUdgivet - mar. 2022


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