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Beneficent and Maleficent Effects of Cations on Bufadienolide Binding to Na+,K+-ATPase

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Kinetic properties and crystal structures of the Na+,K+-ATPase in complex with cardiotonic steroids (CTS) revealed significant differences between CTS subfamilies (Laursen et al.). Thus, we found beneficial effects of K+ on bufadienolide binding, which strongly contrasted with the well-known antagonism between K+ and cardenolides. In order to understand this peculiarity of bufalin interactions, we used docking and molecular dynamics simulations of the complexes involving Na+,K+-ATPase, bufadienolides (bufalin, cinobufagin), and ions (K+, Na+, Mg2+). The results revealed that bufadienolide binding is affected by (i) electrostatic attraction of the lactone ring by a cation and (ii) the ability of a cation to stabilize and “shape” the site constituted by transmembrane helices of the α-subunit (αM1–6). The latter effect was due to varying coordination patterns involving amino acid residues from helix bundles αM1–4 and αM5–10. Substituents on the steroid core of a bufadienolide add to and modify the cation effects. The above rationale is fully consistent with the ion effects on the kinetics of Na+,K+-ATPase/bufadienolide interactions.
TidsskriftJournal of Chemical Information and Modeling
Sider (fra-til)976-986
StatusUdgivet - feb. 2021

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