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Associations of Maternal Diabetes during Pregnancy with Psychiatric Disorders in Offspring during the First 4 Decades of Life in a Population-Based Danish Birth Cohort

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Importance: Maternal diabetes has been suggested as a risk factor for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism in offspring, but evidence on its association with the full spectrum of psychiatric disorders remains lacking. Objective: To investigate the associations between maternal diabetes diagnosed before or during pregnancy and 10 types of psychiatric disorders in offspring during the first 4 decades of life. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study used data from several Danish nationwide medical and administrative registries in Denmark on all 2413335 live births from 1978 to 2016. Data were analyzed between October 1, 2019, and July 15, 2021. Exposures: Any maternal diabetes diagnosis during pregnancy (56206 offspring [2.3%]) and 3 diabetes subtypes (pregestational type 1 diabetes, 22614 offspring [1.0%]; pregestational type 2 diabetes, 6713 offspring [0.3%]; and gestational diabetes, 26879 offspring [1.1%]). Main Outcomes and Measures: Outcomes included 10 types of psychiatric disorders: any psychiatric disorder, substance use disorders, schizophrenia, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, personality disorders, intellectual disorders, developmental disorders, and behavioral disorders. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were computed using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Covariates included maternal and paternal history of any psychiatric disorder, offspring sex, calendar period of birth, singleton status, and several maternal characteristics during pregnancy (ie, age, parity, educational level, smoking, cohabitation, residence, and body mass index). Sibship design and competing risk analyses were also conducted. Results: A total of 2413335 individuals (1239148 male participants [51%]; age range, 1-39 years; median age, 19.0 years [IQR, 5.8-20.8 years]) were included in this study. During the 39-year follow-up time, 151208 offspring (6.4%) received a diagnosis of a psychiatric disorder. Offspring born to mothers with any diabetes diagnosis during pregnancy were at increased risk of developing any psychiatric disorder (HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.10-1.20), schizophrenia (HR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.15-2.08), anxiety disorders (HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.09-1.36), intellectual disabilities (HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.11-1.50), developmental disorders (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.03-1.30), and behavioral disorders (HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.08-1.27) compared with offspring born to mothers without a diabetes diagnosis during pregnancy. No association was observed for substance use disorders, mood disorders, eating disorders, and personality disorders. Conclusions and Relevance: This study shows a pattern that suggests that prenatal exposure to maternal diabetes during pregnancy was associated with increased risk of psychiatric disorders overall and most specific psychiatric disorders in offspring in their first 4 decades of life.

TidsskriftJAMA network open
StatusUdgivet - okt. 2021

Bibliografisk note

Funding Information:
Funding/Support: This study was supported by unrestricted grants R232-2016-2462 and R265-2017-4069 from Lundbeckfonden (Dr Yu), grants DFF-6110-00019B and 9039-00010B from the Danish Council for Independent Research and Independent Research Fund Denmark (Dr Li), grant R275-A15770 from the Nordic Cancer Union (Dr Li), grant 2016 from the Karen Elise Jensens Fond (Dr Li); and grant NNF18OC0052029 from the Novo Nordisk Foundation (Dr Li).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Nogueira Avelar e Silva R et al.

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