Allelic Variation in the Perennial Ryegrass FLOWERING LOCUS T Gene is Associated with Changes in Flowering Time across a Range of Populations

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  • Leif Skøt, Aberystwyth University, Storbritannien
  • Ruth Sanderson, Aberystwyth University, Storbritannien
  • Ann Thomas, Aberystwyth University, Storbritannien
  • Kirsten Skøt, Aberystwyth University, Storbritannien
  • Danny Thorogood, Aberystwyth University, Storbritannien
  • Galina Latypova, Aberystwyth University, Storbritannien
  • Torben Asp
  • Ian Armstead, Aberystwyth University, Storbritannien
The Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene and its orthologues in other plant species (e.g. rice OsFTL2/Hd3a) have an established role in the photoperiodic induction to flowering response. The genomic and phenotypic variation associated with the Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) orthologue of FT, designated LpFT3, was assessed in a diverse collection of 9 European germplasm populations, which together comprised an association panel of 864 plants. Sequencing and genotyping of a series of amplicons derived from the 9 populations, containing the complete exon and intron sequences as well as 5' and 3' non-coding sequences of LpFT3 identified a total of 7 haplotypes. Genotyping assays designed to detect the genomic variation showed that 3 haplotypes were present in approximately equal proportions and represented 84% of the total, with a fourth representing a further 11%. Of the 3 major haplotypes, 2 were predicted to code for identical protein products and the third contained two amino acid substitutions. Association analysis using either a mixed model with a relationship matrix to correct for population structure and relatedness, or structured association with further correction using genomic control indicated significant associations between LpFT3 and variation in flowering time. These associations were corroborated in a validation population segregating for the same major alleles. The most 'diagnostic' region of genomic variation was situated 5' of the coding sequence. Analysis of this region identified that the inter-haplotype variation was closely associated with sequence motifs which were apparently conserved in the 5' region of orthologues of LpFT3 from other plant species. These may represent cis-regulatory elements involved in influencing the expression of this gene.
TidsskriftPlant Physiology
Sider (fra-til)1013-1022
Antal sider9
StatusUdgivet - 2011

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