A global meta-analysis of phthalate esters in drinking water sources and associated health risks

Yasser Vasseghian, Monireh Alimohamadi, Elena Niculina Dragoi, Christian Sonne*

*Corresponding author af dette arbejde

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskrift/Konferencebidrag i tidsskrift /Bidrag til avisReviewForskningpeer review

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Abstract

Phthalate esters (PAEs) are known as esters of phthalic acid, which are commonly used as plasticizers in the plastic industry. Due to the lack of chemical bonding with the polymer matrix, these compounds are easily separated from plastic products and enter the environment. To investigate the growth of concentration of PAEs like DBP (Dibutyl phthalate), DEP (Diethyl phthalate), DMP (Dimethyl phthalate), DIBP (Diisobutyl phthalate), and TPMBP (tris(2-methylbutyl) phosphate) in different water sources, a study from January 01, 1976, to April 30, 2021, was implemented via a global systematic review plus meta-analysis in which, 109 articles comprising 4061 samples, 4 water types, and 27 countries were included. Between various types of water sources, river water and lake water were the most contaminated resources with PAEs. Among all studies of PAEs, DBP and DEP with the values >15,573 mg L−1 have the highest average concentration and TPMBP with the value 0.002885 mg L−1 has the lowest average concentration in water sources. The most contaminated water sources with PAEs were in Nigeria and the least contaminated was in China. Besides, Monte-Carlo simulation indicated that for DMP and DEP minimum values that are lower than the acceptable limit are generated. However, most of the population (>75 %) is at risk for both adults and child cases. For DIBP and DBP the situation is much worse, the simulations not providing at least one case where the R index is lower than the acceptable limit of 1E-06.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
Artikelnummer166846
TidsskriftScience of the total Environment
Vol/bind903
ISSN0048-9697
DOI
StatusUdgivet - dec. 2023

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