The purpose of career guidance includes the support of citizens’ agency. In this article, we develop a framework for analysing the internal structure of agency within career guidance theory. This framework is inspired by relational sociology. The approach is used in an analysis of two contemporary career guidance theories: the systems theory framework (STF) and life-design counselling (LDC). The analyses show that the practical-evaluative dimension of agency in the two theories can be honed. This dimension of agency explores responses to current demands and contingencies. We conclude that the proposed approach was constructive in developing a deeper understanding of the conceptualisation of agency in career guidance theory.