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A chronicle of SARS-CoV-2: Seasonality, environmental fate, transport, inactivation, and antiviral drug resistance

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskrift/Konferencebidrag i tidsskrift /Bidrag til avisTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

  • Manish Kumar, Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar
  • ,
  • Payal Mazumder, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati
  • ,
  • Sanjeeb Mohapatra, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay
  • ,
  • Alok Kumar Thakur, Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar
  • ,
  • Kiran Dhangar, Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar
  • ,
  • Kaling Taki, Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar
  • ,
  • Santanu Mukherjee, Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar
  • ,
  • Arbind Kumar Patel, Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar
  • ,
  • Prosun Bhattacharya, Royal Institute of Technology
  • ,
  • Pranab Mohapatra, Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar
  • ,
  • Jörg Rinklebe, University of Wuppertal, Sejong University
  • ,
  • Masaaki Kitajima, Hokkaido University
  • ,
  • Faisal I. Hai, University of Wollongong
  • ,
  • Anwar Khursheed, King Saud University
  • ,
  • Hiroaki Furumai, University of Tokyo
  • ,
  • Christian Sonne
  • Keisuke Kuroda, Toyama Prefectural University

In this review, we present the environmental perspectives of the viruses and antiviral drugs related to SARS-CoV-2. The present review paper discusses occurrence, fate, transport, susceptibility, and inactivation mechanisms of viruses in the environment as well as environmental occurrence and fate of antiviral drugs, and prospects (prevalence and occurrence) of antiviral drug resistance (both antiviral drug resistant viruses and antiviral resistance in the human). During winter, the number of viral disease cases and environmental occurrence of antiviral drug surge due to various biotic and abiotic factors such as transmission pathways, human behaviour, susceptibility, and immunity as well as cold climatic conditions. Adsorption and persistence critically determine the fate and transport of viruses in the environment. Inactivation and disinfection of virus include UV, alcohol, and other chemical-base methods but the susceptibility of virus against these methods varies. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are major reserviors of antiviral drugs and their metabolites and transformation products. Ecotoxicity of antiviral drug residues against aquatic organisms have been reported, however more threatening is the development of antiviral resistance, both in humans and in wild animal reservoirs. In particular, emergence of antiviral drug-resistant viruses via exposure of wild animals to high loads of antiviral residues during the current pandemic needs further evaluation.

TidsskriftJournal of Hazardous Materials
Antal sider17
StatusUdgivet - mar. 2021

Bibliografisk note

Funding Information:
We acknowledge the fund and support received from the UK-India Education and Research Initiative (UKIERI).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Elsevier B.V.

Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

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