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Mikkel Nørup Lund

Microlensing Discovery of a Population of Very Tight, Very Low Mass Binary Brown Dwarfs

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  • J.-Y. Choi, Department of Physics, Institute for Astrophysics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 371-763, Republic of Korea
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  • C. Han, Department of Physics, Institute for Astrophysics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 371-763, Republic of Korea
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  • A. Udalski, Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa, Poland
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  • T. Sumi, Department of Earth and Space Science, Osaka University, Osaka 560-0043, Japan
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  • B. S. Gaudi, Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
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  • A. Gould, Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
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  • D. P. Bennett, University of Notre Dame
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  • M. Dominik, SUPA, School of Physics & Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9SS, UK
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  • J.-P. Beaulieu, Institut dAstrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS-Université Pierre & Marie Curie, 98 bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris, France
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  • Y. Tsapras, Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740B Cortona Drive, Goleta, CA 93117, USA
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  • V. Bozza, INFN, Sezione di Napoli, I-80126 Napoli, Italy
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  • F. Abe, Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan
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  • I. A. Bond, Institute of Information and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University, Private Bag 102-904, North Shore Mail Centre, Auckland 0745, New Zealand
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  • C. S. Botzler, Department of Physics, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92-019, Auckland 1001, New Zealand
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  • P. Chote, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University, Wellington 6140, New Zealand
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  • M. Freeman, Department of Physics, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92-019, Auckland 1001, New Zealand
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  • A. Fukui, Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Asakuchi, Okayama 719-0232, Japan
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  • K. Furusawa, Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan
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  • Y. Itow, Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan
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  • C. H. Ling, Institute of Information and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University, Private Bag 102-904, North Shore Mail Centre, Auckland 0745, New Zealand
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  • K. Masuda, Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan
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  • Y. Matsubara, Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan
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  • N. Miyake, Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan
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  • Y. Muraki, Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan
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  • K. Ohnishi, Nagano National College of Technology, Nagano 381-8550, Japan
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  • N. J. Rattenbury, Department of Physics, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92-019, Auckland 1001, New Zealand
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  • To. Saito, Tokyo Metropolitan College of Aeronautics, Tokyo 116-8523, Japan
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  • D. J. Sullivan, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University, Wellington 6140, New Zealand
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  • K. Suzuki, Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan
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  • W. L. Sweatman, Institute of Information and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University, Private Bag 102-904, North Shore Mail Centre, Auckland 0745, New Zealand
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  • D. Suzuki, Department of Earth and Space Science, Osaka University, Osaka 560-0043, Japan
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  • S. Takino, Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan
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  • P. J. Tristram, Mt. John University Observatory, P.O. Box 56, Lake Tekapo 8770, New Zealand
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  • K. Wada, Department of Earth and Space Science, Osaka University, Osaka 560-0043, Japan
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  • P. C. M. Yock, Department of Physics, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92-019, Auckland 1001, New Zealand
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  • The MOA Collaboration
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  • M. K. Szymański, Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa, Poland
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  • M. Kubiak, Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa, Poland
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  • G. Pietrzyński, Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa, Poland
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  • I. Soszyński, Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa, Poland
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  • J. Skowron, Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
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  • S. Kozłowski, Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa, Poland
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  • R. Poleski, Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa, Poland
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  • K. Ulaczyk, Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa, Poland
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  • Ł. Wyrzykowski, Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa, Poland
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  • P. Pietrukowicz, Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa, Poland
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  • The OGLE Collaboration
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  • L. A. Almeida, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, São José dos Campos, SP, Brazil
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  • D. L. DePoy, Department of Physics, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
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  • Subo Dong, Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA
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  • E. Gorbikov, School of Physics and Astronomy and Wise Observatory, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978, Israel
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  • F. Jablonski, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, São José dos Campos, SP, Brazil
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  • C. B. Henderson, Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
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  • K.-H. Hwang, Department of Physics, Institute for Astrophysics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 371-763, Republic of Korea
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  • J. Janczak, Department of Physics, Ohio State University, 191 W. Woodruff, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
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  • Y.-K. Jung, Department of Physics, Institute for Astrophysics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 371-763, Republic of Korea
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  • S. Kaspi, School of Physics and Astronomy and Wise Observatory, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978, Israel
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  • C.-U. Lee, Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348, Republic of Korea
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  • U. Malamud, School of Physics and Astronomy and Wise Observatory, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978, Israel
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  • D. Maoz, School of Physics and Astronomy and Wise Observatory, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978, Israel
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  • D. McGregor, Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
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  • J. A. Muñoz, Departamento de Astronomìa y Astrofìsica, Universidad de Valencia, E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia, Spain
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  • B.-G. Park, Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348, Republic of Korea
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  • H. Park, Department of Physics, Institute for Astrophysics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 371-763, Republic of Korea
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  • R. W. Pogge, Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
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  • Y. Shvartzvald, School of Physics and Astronomy and Wise Observatory, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978, Israel
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  • I.-G. Shin, Department of Physics, Institute for Astrophysics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 371-763, Republic of Korea
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  • J. C. Yee, Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
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  • The μFUN Collaboration
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  • K. A. Alsubai, Qatar Foundation, P.O. Box 5825, Doha, Qatar
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  • P. Browne, SUPA, School of Physics & Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9SS, UK
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  • M. J. Burgdorf, HE Space Operations, Flughafenallee 24, D-28199 Bremen, Germany
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  • S. Calchi Novati, Istituto Internazionale per gli Alti Studi Scientifici (IIASS), I-84019 Vietri Sul Mare (SA), Italy
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  • P. Dodds, SUPA, School of Physics & Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9SS, UK
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  • X.-S. Fang, National Astronomical Observatories/Yunnan Observatory, Key Laboratory for the Structure and Evolution of Celestial Objects, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011, China
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  • F. Finet, Institut dAstrophysique et de Géophysique, Allé du 6 Août 17, Sart Tilman, Bât. B5c, B-4000 Liége, Belgium
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  • M. Glitrup, Stellar Astrophysics Center (SAC), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Århus C, Denmark
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  • F. Grundahl
  • S.-H. Gu, National Astronomical Observatories/Yunnan Observatory, Key Laboratory for the Structure and Evolution of Celestial Objects, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011, China
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  • S. Hardis, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
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  • K. Harpsøe, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
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  • T. C. Hinse, Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348, Republic of Korea
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  • A. Hornstrup, Institut for Rumforskning og-teknologi, Danmarks Tekniske Universitet, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 København, Denmark
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  • M. Hundertmark, SUPA, School of Physics & Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9SS, UK
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  • J. Jessen-Hansen
  • U. G. Jrgensen, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
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  • N. Kains, SUPA, School of Physics & Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9SS, UK
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  • E. Kerins, Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
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  • C. Liebig, SUPA, School of Physics & Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9SS, UK
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  • M. N. Lund
  • M. Lundkvist
  • G. Maier, Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg (ZAH), Mönchhofstr. 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany
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  • L. Mancini, Dipartimento di Fisica E.R. Caianiello¡, Università di Salerno, Via Ponte Don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (SA), Italy
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  • M. Mathiasen, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
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  • M. T. Penny, Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
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  • S. Rahvar, Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-9161, Tehran, Iran
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  • D. Ricci, Institut dAstrophysique et de Géophysique, Allé du 6 Août 17, Sart Tilman, Bât. B5c, B-4000 Liége, Belgium
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  • G. Scarpetta, INFN, Sezione di Napoli, I-80126 Napoli, Italy
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  • J. Skottfelt, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
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  • C. Snodgrass, Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Max-Planck-Str. 2, D-37191 Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany
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  • J. Southworth, Astrophysics Group, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG, UK
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  • J. Surdej, Institut dAstrophysique et de Géophysique, Allé du 6 Août 17, Sart Tilman, Bât. B5c, B-4000 Liége, Belgium
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  • J. Tregloan-Reed, Astrophysics Group, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG, UK
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  • J. Wambsganss, Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg (ZAH), Mönchhofstr. 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany
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  • O. Wertz, Institut dAstrophysique et de Géophysique, Allé du 6 Août 17, Sart Tilman, Bât. B5c, B-4000 Liége, Belgium
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  • F. Zimmer, Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg (ZAH), Mönchhofstr. 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany
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  • The MiNDSTEp Consortium
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  • M. D. Albrow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8020, New Zealand
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  • E. Bachelet, IRAP, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, 14 Avenue Edouard Belin, F-31400 Toulouse, France
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  • V. Batista, Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
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  • S. Brillant, European Southern Observatory (ESO), Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19, Chile
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  • A. Cassan, UPMC-CNRS, UMR 7095, Institut dAstrophysique de Paris, 98bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris, France
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  • A. A. Cole, School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37, Hobart, TAS 7001, Australia
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  • C. Coutures, UPMC-CNRS, UMR 7095, Institut dAstrophysique de Paris, 98bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris, France
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  • S. Dieters, School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37, Hobart, TAS 7001, Australia
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  • D. Dominis Prester, Department of Physics, University of Rijeka, Omladinska 14, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia
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  • J. Donatowicz, Department of Computing, Technical University of Vienna, Wiedner Hauptstrasse, A-1040 Vienna, Austria
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  • P. Fouqué, IRAP, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, 14 Avenue Edouard Belin, F-31400 Toulouse, France
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  • J. Greenhill, School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37, Hobart, TAS 7001, Australia
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  • D. Kubas, European Southern Observatory (ESO), Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19, Chile
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  • J.-B. Marquette, UPMC-CNRS, UMR 7095, Institut dAstrophysique de Paris, 98bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris, France
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  • J. W. Menzies, South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7925, South Africa
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  • K. C. Sahu, Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
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  • M. Zub, Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg (ZAH), Mönchhofstr. 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany
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  • The PLANET Collaboration
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  • D. M. Bramich, European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei München, Germany
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  • K. Horne, SUPA, School of Physics & Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9SS, UK
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  • I. A. Steele, Liverpool John Moores University
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  • R. A. Street, Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740B Cortona Drive, Goleta, CA 93117, USA
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  • The RoboNet Collaboration
Although many models have been proposed, the physical mechanisms responsible for the formation of low-mass brown dwarfs (BDs) are poorly understood. The multiplicity properties and minimum mass of the BD mass function provide critical empirical diagnostics of these mechanisms. We present the discovery via gravitational microlensing of two very low mass, very tight binary systems. These binaries have directly and precisely measured total system masses of 0.025 M ⊙ and 0.034 M ⊙, and projected separations of 0.31 AU and 0.19 AU, making them the lowest-mass and tightest field BD binaries known. The discovery of a population of such binaries indicates that BD binaries can robustly form at least down to masses of ~0.02 M ⊙. Future microlensing surveys will measure a mass-selected sample of BD binary systems, which can then be directly compared to similar samples of stellar binaries.
OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftAstrophysical Journal
Vol/bind768
Nummer2
Sider (fra-til)129
ISSN0004-637X
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 1 maj 2013

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