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Mikkel Nørup Lund

Masses, Radii, and Orbits of Small Kepler Planets: The Transition from Gaseous to Rocky Planets

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  • Geoffrey W. Marcy, Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
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  • Howard Isaacson, Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
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  • Andrew W. Howard, Epidemiology Program, University of Hawaii Cancer Center, Honolulu, HI, USA.
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  • Jason F. Rowe, NASA Ames Research Center Institute, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA
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  • Jon M. Jenkins, SETI Institute/NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA
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  • Stephen T. Bryson, NASA Ames Research Center Institute, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA
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  • David W. Latham, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
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  • Steve B. Howell, NASA Ames Research Center Institute, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA
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  • Thomas N., III Gautier, Jet Propulsion Laboratory/Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA
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  • Natalie M. Batalha, NASA Ames Research Center Institute, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA
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  • Leslie Rogers, Department of Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA
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  • David Ciardi, NASA Exoplanet Science Institute/Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
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  • Debra A. Fischer, Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
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  • Ronald L. Gilliland, Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, 16802, USA
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  • Hans Kjeldsen
  • Jørgen Christensen-Dalsgaard
  • Daniel Huber, NASA Ames Research Center Institute, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA
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  • William J. Chaplin, University of Birmingam
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  • Sarbani Basu, Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
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  • Lars A. Buchhave, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
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  • Samuel N. Quinn, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
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  • William J. Borucki, NASA Ames Research Center Institute, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA
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  • David G. Koch, NASA Ames Research Center Institute, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA
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  • Roger Hunter, NASA Ames Research Center Institute, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA
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  • Douglas A. Caldwell, SETI Institute/NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA
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  • Jeffrey Van Cleve, SETI Institute/NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA
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  • Rea Kolbl, Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA, Danmark
  • Lauren M. Weiss, Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA, Danmark
  • Erik Petigura, Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA, Danmark
  • Sara Seager, Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
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  • Timothy Morton, Department of Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA
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  • John Asher Johnson, Department of Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA
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  • Sarah Ballard, Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA, Danmark
  • Chris Burke, SETI Institute/NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA, Danmark
  • William D. Cochran, McDonald Observatory, The University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712, USA
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  • Michael Endl, McDonald Observatory, The University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712, USA
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  • Phillip MacQueen, McDonald Observatory, The University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712, USA
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  • Mark E. Everett, NOAO, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719, USA, Danmark
  • Jack J. Lissauer, NASA Ames Research Center Institute, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA
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  • Eric B. Ford, Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
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  • Guillermo Torres, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
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  • Francois Fressin, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
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  • Timothy M. Brown, Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, Goleta, CA, 93117, USA
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  • Jason H. Steffen, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA
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  • David Charbonneau, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
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  • Gibor S. Basri, Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
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  • Dimitar D. Sasselov, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
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  • Joshua Winn, Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
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  • Roberto Sanchis-Ojeda, Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
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  • Jessie Christiansen, NASA Ames Research Center Institute, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA
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  • Elisabeth Adams, Planetary Science Institute, 1700 East Fort Lowell, Suite 106, Tucson, AZ 85719, USA
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  • Christopher Henze, NASA Ames Research Center Institute, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA
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  • Andrea Dupree, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
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  • Daniel C. Fabrycky, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
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  • Jonathan J. Fortney, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA
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  • Jill Tarter, SETI Institute/NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA
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  • Matthew J. Holman, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
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  • Peter Tenenbaum, SETI Institute/NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA
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  • Avi Shporer, Department of Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA
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  • Philip W. Lucas, Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield, AL10 9AB, UK
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  • William F. Welsh, Department of Astronomy, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182, USA jeffries@sciences.sdsu.edu
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  • Jerome A. Orosz, Department of Astronomy, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182, USA jeffries@sciences.sdsu.edu
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  • T. R. Bedding, Sydney Institute for Astronomy (SIfA), School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
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  • T. L. Campante, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK., Danmark
  • G. R. Davies, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.
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  • Y. Elsworth, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.
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  • Rasmus Handberg
  • S. Hekker, Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, D-37191 Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany
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  • C. Karoff
  • S. D. Kawaler, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011, USA
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  • M. N. Lund
  • M. Lundkvist
  • T. S. Metcalfe, Space Science Institute, Boulder, CO 80301, USA, Danmark
  • A. Miglio, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.
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  • Victor Silva Aguirre
  • D. Stello, Sydney Institute for Astronomy (SIfA), School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia, Danmark
  • T. R. White, Sydney Institute for Astronomy (SIfA), School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
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  • Alan Boss, Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC 20015, USA
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  • Edna Devore, SETI Institute/NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA
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  • Alan Gould, Lawrence Hall of Science, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
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  • Andrej Prsa, Villanova University, Dept. of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 800 East Lancaster Avenue, Villanova, PA 19085, USA
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  • Eric Agol, Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA, Danmark
  • Thomas Barclay, Bay Area Environmental Research Institute/Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA
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  • Jeff Coughlin, Bay Area Environmental Research Institute/Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA, Danmark
  • Erik Brugamyer, McDonald Observatory, The University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712, USA, Danmark
  • Fergal Mullally, SETI Institute/NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA
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  • Elisa V. Quintana, SETI Institute/NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA
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  • Martin Still, Bay Area Environmental Research Institute/Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA
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  • Susan E. Thompson, SETI Institute/NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA
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  • David Morrison, NASA Ames Research Center Institute, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA, Danmark
  • Joseph D. Twicken, SETI Institute/NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA
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  • Jean-Michel Désert, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
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  • Josh Carter, Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139, USA, Danmark
  • Justin R. Crepp, University of Notre Dame, Danmark
  • Guillaume Hébrard, Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS, Université Pierre and Marie Curie, 98bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris, France, Danmark
  • Alexandre Santerne, Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille, France, Danmark
  • Claire Moutou, Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, 65-1238 Mamalahoa Hwy, Kamuela, HI 96743, USA, Danmark
  • Charlie Sobeck, NASA Ames Research Center Institute, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA, Danmark
  • Douglas Hudgins, NASA Headquarters, Washginton DC, USA, Danmark
  • Michael R. Haas, NASA Ames Research Center Institute, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA
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  • Paul Robertson, McDonald Observatory, The University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712, USA, Danmark
  • Jorge Lillo-Box, Depto. Astrofísica, Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC, Danmark
  • David Barrado, Depto. Astrofísica, Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC, Danmark
We report on the masses, sizes, and orbits of the planets orbiting 22 Kepler stars. There are 49 planet candidates around these stars, including 42 detected through transits and 7 revealed by precise Doppler measurements of the host stars. Based on an analysis of the Kepler brightness measurements, along with high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy, Doppler spectroscopy, and (for 11 stars) asteroseismology, we establish low false-positive probabilities (FPPs) for all of the transiting planets (41 of 42 have an FPP under 1%), and we constrain their sizes and masses. Most of the transiting planets are smaller than three times the size of Earth. For 16 planets, the Doppler signal was securely detected, providing a direct measurement of the planet's mass. For the other 26 planets we provide either marginal mass measurements or upper limits to their masses and densities; in many cases we can rule out a rocky composition. We identify six planets with densities above 5 g cm-3, suggesting a mostly rocky interior for them. Indeed, the only planets that are compatible with a purely rocky composition are smaller than ~2 R ⊕. Larger planets evidently contain a larger fraction of low-density material (H, He, and H2O). Based in part on observations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated by the University of California and the California Institute of Technology.
OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftAstrophysical Journal Supplement Series
Vol/bind210
Nummer2
Sider (fra-til)20
ISSN0067-0049
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 1 feb. 2014

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