Aarhus Universitets segl

J.-C. Svenning

People have shaped most of terrestrial nature for at least 12,000 years

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Standard

People have shaped most of terrestrial nature for at least 12,000 years. / Ellis, Erle C.; Gauthier, Nicolas; Goldewijk, Kees Klein et al.

I: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Bind 118, Nr. 17, e2023483118, 04.2021.

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskrift/Konferencebidrag i tidsskrift /Bidrag til avisTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

Harvard

Ellis, EC, Gauthier, N, Goldewijk, KK, Bird, RB, Boivin, N, Díaz, S, Fuller, DQ, Gill, JL, Kaplan, JO, Kingston, N, Locke, H, McMichael, CNH, Ranco, D, Rick, TC, Rebecca Shaw, M, Stephens, L, Svenning, JC & Watson, JEM 2021, 'People have shaped most of terrestrial nature for at least 12,000 years', Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, bind 118, nr. 17, e2023483118. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2023483118

APA

Ellis, E. C., Gauthier, N., Goldewijk, K. K., Bird, R. B., Boivin, N., Díaz, S., Fuller, D. Q., Gill, J. L., Kaplan, J. O., Kingston, N., Locke, H., McMichael, C. N. H., Ranco, D., Rick, T. C., Rebecca Shaw, M., Stephens, L., Svenning, J. C., & Watson, J. E. M. (2021). People have shaped most of terrestrial nature for at least 12,000 years. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 118(17), [e2023483118]. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2023483118

CBE

Ellis EC, Gauthier N, Goldewijk KK, Bird RB, Boivin N, Díaz S, Fuller DQ, Gill JL, Kaplan JO, Kingston N, et al. 2021. People have shaped most of terrestrial nature for at least 12,000 years. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 118(17):Article e2023483118. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2023483118

MLA

Ellis, Erle C. et al. "People have shaped most of terrestrial nature for at least 12,000 years". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2021. 118(17). https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2023483118

Vancouver

Ellis EC, Gauthier N, Goldewijk KK, Bird RB, Boivin N, Díaz S et al. People have shaped most of terrestrial nature for at least 12,000 years. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2021 apr.;118(17):e2023483118. doi: 10.1073/pnas.2023483118

Author

Ellis, Erle C. ; Gauthier, Nicolas ; Goldewijk, Kees Klein et al. / People have shaped most of terrestrial nature for at least 12,000 years. I: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2021 ; Bind 118, Nr. 17.

Bibtex

@article{7449731e6fe24867a24c6999d235c5fb,
title = "People have shaped most of terrestrial nature for at least 12,000 years",
abstract = "Archaeological and paleoecological evidence shows that by 10,000 BCE, all human societies employed varying degrees of ecologically transformative land use practices, including burning, hunting, species propagation, domestication, cultivation, and others that have left long-term legacies across the terrestrial biosphere. Yet, a lingering paradigm among natural scientists, conservationists, and policymakers is that human transformation of terrestrial nature is mostly recent and inherently destructive. Here, we use the most up-to-date, spatially explicit global reconstruction of historical human populations and land use to show that this paradigm is likely wrong. Even 12,000 y ago, nearly three quarters of Earth{\textquoteright}s land was inhabited and therefore shaped by human societies, including more than 95% of temperate and 90% of tropical woodlands. Lands now characterized as “natural,” “intact,” and “wild” generally exhibit long histories of use, as do protected areas and Indigenous lands, and current global patterns of vertebrate species richness and key biodiversity areas are more strongly associated with past patterns of land use than with present ones in regional landscapes now characterized as natural. The current biodiversity crisis can seldom be explained by the loss of uninhabited wildlands, resulting instead from the appropriation, colonization, and intensifying use of the biodiverse cultural landscapes long shaped and sustained by prior societies. Recognizing this deep cultural connection with biodiversity will therefore be essential to resolve the crisis.",
keywords = "Agriculture, Anthropocene, Conservation, Extinction, Hunter-gatherer",
author = "Ellis, {Erle C.} and Nicolas Gauthier and Goldewijk, {Kees Klein} and Bird, {Rebecca Bliege} and Nicole Boivin and Sandra D{\'i}az and Fuller, {Dorian Q.} and Gill, {Jacquelyn L.} and Kaplan, {Jed O.} and Naomi Kingston and Harvey Locke and McMichael, {Crystal N.H.} and Darren Ranco and Rick, {Torben C.} and {Rebecca Shaw}, M. and Lucas Stephens and Svenning, {Jens Christian} and Watson, {James E.M.}",
note = "Publisher Copyright: {\textcopyright} 2021 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Copyright: Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.",
year = "2021",
month = apr,
doi = "10.1073/pnas.2023483118",
language = "English",
volume = "118",
journal = "Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America",
issn = "0027-8424",
publisher = "The National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America",
number = "17",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - People have shaped most of terrestrial nature for at least 12,000 years

AU - Ellis, Erle C.

AU - Gauthier, Nicolas

AU - Goldewijk, Kees Klein

AU - Bird, Rebecca Bliege

AU - Boivin, Nicole

AU - Díaz, Sandra

AU - Fuller, Dorian Q.

AU - Gill, Jacquelyn L.

AU - Kaplan, Jed O.

AU - Kingston, Naomi

AU - Locke, Harvey

AU - McMichael, Crystal N.H.

AU - Ranco, Darren

AU - Rick, Torben C.

AU - Rebecca Shaw, M.

AU - Stephens, Lucas

AU - Svenning, Jens Christian

AU - Watson, James E.M.

N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2021 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Copyright: Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

PY - 2021/4

Y1 - 2021/4

N2 - Archaeological and paleoecological evidence shows that by 10,000 BCE, all human societies employed varying degrees of ecologically transformative land use practices, including burning, hunting, species propagation, domestication, cultivation, and others that have left long-term legacies across the terrestrial biosphere. Yet, a lingering paradigm among natural scientists, conservationists, and policymakers is that human transformation of terrestrial nature is mostly recent and inherently destructive. Here, we use the most up-to-date, spatially explicit global reconstruction of historical human populations and land use to show that this paradigm is likely wrong. Even 12,000 y ago, nearly three quarters of Earth’s land was inhabited and therefore shaped by human societies, including more than 95% of temperate and 90% of tropical woodlands. Lands now characterized as “natural,” “intact,” and “wild” generally exhibit long histories of use, as do protected areas and Indigenous lands, and current global patterns of vertebrate species richness and key biodiversity areas are more strongly associated with past patterns of land use than with present ones in regional landscapes now characterized as natural. The current biodiversity crisis can seldom be explained by the loss of uninhabited wildlands, resulting instead from the appropriation, colonization, and intensifying use of the biodiverse cultural landscapes long shaped and sustained by prior societies. Recognizing this deep cultural connection with biodiversity will therefore be essential to resolve the crisis.

AB - Archaeological and paleoecological evidence shows that by 10,000 BCE, all human societies employed varying degrees of ecologically transformative land use practices, including burning, hunting, species propagation, domestication, cultivation, and others that have left long-term legacies across the terrestrial biosphere. Yet, a lingering paradigm among natural scientists, conservationists, and policymakers is that human transformation of terrestrial nature is mostly recent and inherently destructive. Here, we use the most up-to-date, spatially explicit global reconstruction of historical human populations and land use to show that this paradigm is likely wrong. Even 12,000 y ago, nearly three quarters of Earth’s land was inhabited and therefore shaped by human societies, including more than 95% of temperate and 90% of tropical woodlands. Lands now characterized as “natural,” “intact,” and “wild” generally exhibit long histories of use, as do protected areas and Indigenous lands, and current global patterns of vertebrate species richness and key biodiversity areas are more strongly associated with past patterns of land use than with present ones in regional landscapes now characterized as natural. The current biodiversity crisis can seldom be explained by the loss of uninhabited wildlands, resulting instead from the appropriation, colonization, and intensifying use of the biodiverse cultural landscapes long shaped and sustained by prior societies. Recognizing this deep cultural connection with biodiversity will therefore be essential to resolve the crisis.

KW - Agriculture

KW - Anthropocene

KW - Conservation

KW - Extinction

KW - Hunter-gatherer

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85104927280&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1073/pnas.2023483118

DO - 10.1073/pnas.2023483118

M3 - Journal article

C2 - 33875599

AN - SCOPUS:85104927280

VL - 118

JO - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

JF - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

SN - 0027-8424

IS - 17

M1 - e2023483118

ER -