Juridisk Institut

Graham Butler

Associate Professor, Lektor

Curriculum Vitae

Dr. Graham Butler (B.A., LL.M., Ph.D.) is Associate Professor of Law at Aarhus University, Denmark.

His research and scholarship focuses on various aspects of European Union law, including EU constitutional law, EU internal market law, EU external relations law, as well as EU administrative law, and EU procedural law.

Dr. Butler has been named ‘DFF Sapere Aude Research Leader’ by Danmarks Frie Forskningsfond (the Independent Research Fund Denmark) for his writings in EU law.

He is the author/editor of several books, including:

  • Research Handbook on EEA Internal Market Law (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2023),
  • EU Internal Market Law (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2022),
  • Shaping EU Law the British Way: UK Advocates General at the Court of Justice of the European Union (Oxford: Hart Publishing/Bloomsbury, 2022) (ed, w/ Adam Lazowski), 
  • EU External Relations Law: The Cases in Context (Oxford: Hart Publishing/Bloomsbury, 2022) (ed, w/ Ramses A. Wessel),
  • Constitutional Law of the EU’s Common Foreign and Security Policy (Oxford: Hart Publishing/Bloomsbury, 2019). 

His research has been published in all the leading academic law reviews and journals in European law, including the Common Market Law Review, European Law ReviewEuropean Constitutional Law Review, European Law Journal, European Public LawMaastricht Journal of European and Comparative LawEuropean Foreign Affairs ReviewEuropean Business Law Review, the Cambridge Yearbook of European Legal Studies, the Yearbook of European LawLegal Issues of Economic Integration, the Columbia Journal of European LawFordham International Law JournalNordic Journal of International Law, the Journal of International and Comparative Law, the Journal of European Public Policy, the Nordic Journal of European LawInternational Organizations Law Review, the Irish Jurist, the Dublin University Law Journal, the Max Planck Encyclopedia of Comparative Constitutional Law, amongst others. He has also contributed to several edited volumes and collections published by Oxford University PressCambridge University PressHart PublishingBloomsburyEdward Elgar PublishingRoutledgeIntersentia, and more. 

Dr. Butler holds a number of academic degrees from University College Dublin (UCD), National University of Ireland (NUI); the University of Iceland (Háskóli Íslands); and the University of Copenhagen (Københavns Universitet), Denmark. 

Dr. Butler was a member of the Investigation on developments in the EU and Europe in the field of security and defense policy, and implications for Denmark (Udredning om udviklingen i EU og Europa på det sikkerheds- og forsvarspolitiske område og betydningen for Danmark) (2018-2019), commissioned and appointed by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark (Udenrigsministeriet). 

Dr. Butler's research has been cited in a number of cases at the Court of Justice of the European Union, including:

  • Opinion of Advocate General Eleanor Sharpston in Case C-670/16, Tsegezab Mengesteab v Federal Republic of Germany (Grand Chamber), 2017, concerning the EU’s Area of Freedom, Security, and Justice (Justice and Home Affairs).
  • Opinion of Advocate General Michal Bobek in Case C-418/18 P, Puppinck and Others v European Commission (Grand Chamber), 2019, concerning, inter alia, the European Citizens’ Initiative (ECI), EU institutional law, scope of executive discretion, standards of judicial review, and EU procedural law – an appeal of a judgment of the EU General Court in Case T-561/14, One of Us and Others v Commission.
  • Opinion of Advocate General Evgeni Tanchev in Case C-730/18 P, SC v Eulex Kosovo (First Chamber), 2020, concerning, inter alia, the scope of the arbitration clause under Article 272 TFEU, the EU’s contractual relations, and the jurisdiction of the Court in the EU’s Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) – an appeal of a judgment of the EU General Court in Case T-242/17, SC v Eulex Kosovo.
  • Opinion of Advocate General Gerard Hogan in Case C-134/19 P, Bank Refah Kargaran v Council of the European Union (Grand Chamber), 2020, concerning, inter alia, jurisdiction of the Court in actions for damages, restrictive measures (sanctions), and the legal aspects of the EU’s Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) – an appeal of a judgment of the EU General Court in Case T-552/15, Bank Refah Kargaran v Council of the European Union
  • Opinion of Advocate General Evgeni Tanchev in Case C-283/20, CO, ME, GC and 42 Others v MJ (Head of Mission), European Commission, European External Action Service (EEAS), Council of the European Union, Eulex Kosovo (Fifth Chamber), 2021, concerning, inter alia, jurisdiction of the Court, the EU’s contractual relations, and the attribution of liability of EU missions. 
  • Opinion of Advocate General Priit Pikamäe in Case C-121/21, Czech Republic v Poland (Turów Mine) (Grand Chamber), 2022, concerning inter alia, inter-state cases and the jurisdiction of the Court, cross-border effects of economic activities, enforcement measures, environmental impact assessments, and environmental law. 

Dr. Graham Butler (B.A., LL.M., Ph.D.), Associate Professor of Law.

Website: grahambutler.eu 

Aarhus University: au.dk/en/gb@law

 

Academic positions

  • Associate Professor of Law, Aarhus University, Denmark (2018-present).
  • Assistant Professor of Law, Aarhus University, Denmark (2017-2018).
  • Stagiaire, Cabinet of Judge, Court of Justice of the European Union, Luxemburg (2016).
  • Ph.D. Fellow, Faculty of Law, University of Copenhagen, Denmark (2013-2016).
  • Parliamentary Assistant, Chairman of Joint Oireachtas Committee, Dáil Éireann, Houses of the Oireachtas (national parliament), Dublin, Ireland (2012-2013).

 

Public appointments

  • Member, Examiners Body for Legal Education in Denmark (Medlam af Censorkorpset for Jurauddannelsen i Danmark).
    • Appointed by the Agency for Education and Research (Uddannelses- og Forskningsstyrelsen), Ministry for Education and Research of Denmark (Uddannelses- og Forskningsministeriet) (2022-2026). 
  • Member, Legal Research Programme, European Centranl Bank (ECB).
    • Appointed by the Directorate General Legal Services, ECB, Frankfurt, Germany (2022). 
  • Member of the Investigation (Udredning) on developments in the EU and Europe in the field of security and defense policy, and implications for Denmark (Udredning om udviklingen i EU og Europa på det sikkerheds- og forsvarspolitiske område og betydningen for Danmark) in light of the Denmark's defence-opt-out,
    • Appointed and commissioned by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark (Udenrigsministeriet) (2018-2019). 

 

Academic education and qualifications

  • Ph.D. (Doctor of Philosophy), Faculty of Law, University of Copenhagen, Denmark (2016).
  • Ph.D. (Doctor of Philosophy), Faculty of Law, University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland (2016).
  • LL.M. (Master of Laws), School of Law, University College Dublin, National University of Ireland, Dublin, Ireland (2013).

 

Further education

  • Educational IT for Associate Professors and Professors, Centre for Educational Development (CED), Aarhus University, Denmark (2020-2021).
  • Master’s and PhD Supervision for Associate Professors and Professors, Centre for Teaching and Learning (Center for Undervisning og Læring), Aarhus University, Denmark (2019-2020).
  • Teacher Training Programme for Assistant Professors (Adjunktpædagogikum), Centre for Teaching and Learning (Center for Undervisning og Læring), Aarhus University, Denmark (2017-2018).
  • Academy of European Law, Department of Law, European University Institute (EUI), Fiesole, Florence, Italy (2014). 
  • Centre for the Law of EU External Relations (CLEER) Summer School, TMC Asser Institute and Maastricht University (Campus Brussels), Brussels, Belgium (2014). 

 

Research areas

  • European Union law
  • EU constitutional law
  • EU internal market law
  • EU external relations law
  • EU procedural law
  • EU institutional law
  • EU administrative law

 

Teaching areas

  • European Union law
  • EU constitutional law
  • EU internal market law
  • Business in the internal market
  • International business law (in a European context)
  • EU trade and foreign relations law
  • EU procedural law

 

Awards and Grants

  • Independent Research Fund Denmark (Danmarks Frie Forskningsfond). Sapere Aude Research Leader (Sapere Aude Forskningleder), Agency for Education and Research (Uddannelses- og Forskningsstyrelsen), Ministry for Education and Research of Denmark (Uddannelses- og Forskningsministeriet). 6.188m DKK (€830,000) (2021). 
  • School of Business and Social Science (BSS), Aarhus University. Researcher of the Year (Shortlist) (2018). 
  • Aarhus University Research Foundation (Aarhus Universitets Forskningsfond) (AUFF). Starting Grant. 1,232m DKK (€165,000) (2017).
  • Egmont (Royal Institute for International Relations, Brussels, Belgium); European Security and Defence College (ESDC) (Council of the European Union and  European External Action Service (EEAS), Brussels, Belgium); and the EU Institute for Security Studies (EUISS), Paris, France. Global Strategy Prize (Shortlist) (2017)
  • Professor dr. jur. Max Sørensens Memorial Foundation (Professor dr. jur. Max Sørensens Mindelegat). Max Sørensen Fellowship (2017). 
  • Department of Law Research Fund (Juridisk Institut Forskningspuljer), Aarhus University, Denmark. 18,400 DKK (2017). 
  • Copenhagen Congress and Event Awards, City of Copenhagen (Københavns Kommune). Initiative of the Year Award (Årets Initiativpris) (2016).
  • European Research at the University of Copenhagen (EURECO). University of Copenhagen, Denmark. 64,950 DKK (2016). 
  • The Dreyer Foundation (Dreyers Fond), Denmark. 49,950 DKK (2016).
  • Reinholdt W. Jorck and Wife Foundation (Reinholdt W. Jorck og Hustrus Fond). 50,000 DKK (2016). 
  • European Research at the University of Copenhagen (EURECO). University of Copenhagen, Denmark. 35,000 DKK (2014). 
  • Doctoral/PhD Fellowship Faculty of Law, University of Copenhagen (Juridisk Institut, Københavns Universitet), Denmark. 1,218m DKK (€163,000)) (2013). 

 

Research Councils

  • Panel Member, Law and Political Science Panel, Foundation for Science and Technology (Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia) (FCT), Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education (Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Ensino Superior), Lisbon, Portugal [Portuguese Research Council] (2022).
  • Reviewer, Dutch Research Council (Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek) (NWO), Ministry of Education, Culture and Science (Ministerie van Onderwijs, Cultuur en Wetenschappen), The Hague, the Netherlands (2021). 

 

External Examiner

  • Member, Examiners Body for Legal Education in Denmark (Medlam af Censorkorpset for Jurauddannelsen i Danmark), appointed by the Agency for Education and Research (Uddannelses- og Forskningsstyrelsen), Ministry for Education and Research of Denmark (Uddannelses- og Forskningsministeriet) (2022-2026).
  • External Examiner, Masters studies degree, Faculty of Law (Det juridiske fakultet), University of Oslo (Universitetet i Oslo), Norway (2019). 

 

Publications

Butler, Graham (ed) 'Research Handbook on EEA Internal Market Law', Research Handbooks in European Law, Edward Elgar Publishing: Cheltenham, 2023. 

Butler, Graham 'Intellectual Property in the EEA'. in Research Handbook on EEA Internal Market Law (Butler, Graham (ed), Edward Elgar Publishing: Cheltenham 2023). 

Butler, Graham 'EU Internal Market Law', Elgar European Law, Edward Elgar Publishing: Cheltenham, 2022. 

Butler, Graham; Lazowski, Adam (eds) 'Shaping EU Law the British Way: UK Advocates General at the Court of Justice of the European Union', Hart Publishing/Bloomsbury: Oxford, 2022. 

Kochenov, Dimitry; Butler, Graham, 'Independence of the Court of Justice of the European Union: Unchecked Member States Power after the Sharpston Affair' (2022) European Law Journal. 

Butler, Graham; Meling, Marius 'State Monopolies and the Free Movement of Goods in EEA Law: Ensuring Substantive Homogeneity at the EFTA Court' (2022) 28 (1) International Trade Law and Regulation, 55-72. 

Butler, Graham 'Reconciling the Special Provision on State Monopolies with the General Provisions on the Free Movement of Goods: Opinion of Advocate General Warner in Manghera'. in Shaping EU Law the British Way: UK Advocates General at the Court of Justice of the European Union (Butler, Graham; Lazowski, Adam (eds), Hart Publishing/Bloomsbury: Oxford 2022). 

Ward, Angela; Butler, Graham, 'The Relationship between the Action for Annulment and Preliminary Reference Procedures: Opinion of Advocate General Jacobs in TWD'. in Shaping EU Law the British Way: UK Advocates General at the Court of Justice of the European Union (Butler, Graham; Lazowski, Adam (eds), Hart Publishing/Bloomsbury: Oxford 2022). 

Butler, Graham 'Free Movement of Goods and the Public Security Exception: Opinion of Advocate General Slynn in Campus Oil'. in Shaping EU Law the British Way: UK Advocates General at the Court of Justice of the European Union (Butler, Graham; Lazowski, Adam (eds), Hart Publishing/Bloomsbury: Oxford 2022). 

Butler, Graham; Lazowski, Adam 'Let’s Take the Canvass Out: Advocates General at the Court of Justice of the European Union'. in Shaping EU Law the British Way: UK Advocates General at the Court of Justice of the European Union (Butler, Graham; Lazowski, Adam (eds), Hart Publishing/Bloomsbury: Oxford 2022). 

Butler, Graham; Lazowski, Adam 'Neither Advocates, Nor Generals: The UK Advocates General and the Shaping of EU Law'. in Shaping EU Law the British Way: UK Advocates General at the Court of Justice of the European Union (Butler, Graham; Lazowski, Adam (eds), Hart Publishing/Bloomsbury: Oxford 2022). 

Butler, Graham; Lazowski, Adam 'Introduction'. in Shaping EU Law the British Way: UK Advocates General at the Court of Justice of the European Union (Butler, Graham; Lazowski, Adam (eds), Hart Publishing/Bloomsbury: Oxford 2022). 

Butler, Graham 'The Legal Relations of the European Union with the Vatican City State and Holy See' (2022) 27 (2) European Foreign Affairs Review. 

Butler, Graham 'The EU Customs Union, International Agreements of EU Member States, and the Doctrine of Substitution: Nederlandse Spoorwegen'. in EU External Relations Law: The Cases in Context (Butler, Graham; Wessel, Ramses A. (eds), Hart Publishing/Bloomsbury: Oxford, 2022). ISBN: 978-1-5099-3969-5. pp. 57-66. 

Butler, Graham; Wessel, Ramses A. 'Jurisdiction of the Court for Non-contractual Liability and Actions for Damages Claims within the CFSP: Bank Refah Kargaran'. in EU External Relations Law: The Cases in Context (Butler, Graham; Wessel, Ramses A. (eds), Hart Publishing/Bloomsbury: Oxford, 2022). ISBN: 978-1-5099-3969-5. pp. 991-1000. 

Butler, Graham; Wessel, Ramses A. 'EU External Relations Law, and Navigating the Case Law of the Court of Justice of the European Union'. in EU External Relations Law: The Cases in Context (Butler, Graham; Wessel, Ramses A. (eds), Hart Publishing/Bloomsbury: Oxford, 2022). ISBN: 978-1-5099-3969-5. pp. 1-8. 

Butler, Graham; Wessel, Ramses A. (eds) 'EU External Relations Law: The Cases in Context', Hart Publishing/Bloomsbury: Oxford, 2022. ISBN: 978-1-5099-3969-5. 1048 pp. 

Butler, Graham 'Hidden Administrative Review in EU Law: The BoAs of EU Agencies in the Common Foreign and Security Policy'. in Boards of Appeal of EU Agencies: Towards Judicialization of Administrative Review? (Chamon, Merijn; Volpato, Annalisa; Eliantonio, Mariolina (eds), Oxford University Press: Oxford, 2022). ISBN: 978-0-1928-4929-8. pp. 122-150. 

Butler, Graham 'The EU Customs Union, Free Movement of Goods, and Enforcement Mechanisms in the Protocol on Northern Ireland: A Legal Appraisal'. in Research Handbook on Legal Aspects of Brexit (Lazowski, Adam; Cygan, Adam (eds), Research Handbooks in European Law, Edward Elgar: Cheltenham, 2022). 

Butler, Graham; Sørensen, Karsten Engsig, 'The Prohibition of Abuse of EU Law: A Special General Principle'. in Research Handbook on General Principles in EU Law: Constructing Legal Orders in Europe (Ziegler, Katja S.; Neuvonen, Päivi Johanna; Moreno-Lax, Violeta (eds), Research Handbooks in European Law, Edward Elgar: Cheltenham, 2022). ISBN: 978-1-7847-1237-2. pp. 402-422. 

Butler, Graham 'The Creation of an Internal Market for Private Pensions: Legal Design, Mobility, Retirement, and Taxation', (2022) EU Law Live, Weekend Edition. 

Butler, Graham 'State Aid: Extension of the Acquis and the ‘Effect on Trade’' in The Law and Politics of Brexit: Volume IV: Protocol on Ireland/Northern Ireland (Fabbrini, Federico (ed), Oxford University Press: Press, 2022). pp. 185-208. 

Butler, Graham 'Free Movement of Persons in the Nordic States through EU Law and EEA Law'. in Free Movement of Persons in the Nordic States: EU Law, EEA law, and Regional Cooperation (Hyltén-Cavallius, Katarina; Paju, Jaan (eds), Hart Publishing/Bloomsbury: Oxford 2022). 

Butler, Graham 'Max Sørensen (1913-1981): From Diplomat to Professor to Judge of the Court of Justice of the European Communities'. in Key Biographies in the Legal History of the European Union (1950-1993) (Vogenauer, Stefan; Bajon, Philip (eds), 2022). 

Kassoti, Eva; Butler, Graham 'The Approach of the CJEU to International Law: Towards a Context-Specific Approach'. in Understanding the EU as a Good Global Actor: Ambitions, Values and Metrics (Fahey, Elaine; Mancini, Isabella (eds), Edward Elgar Publishing: Cheltenham, 2022). 

Neergaard, Ulla; Butler, Graham 'Denmark’s Defence Opt-out, the Forthcoming Referendum, and the Changing Face of EU Defence and Security Arrangements', (2022) 95 EU Law Live, Weekend Edition, 2-11. 

Butler, Graham 'The Acceptance, Incorporation, and Re-translation of European Union law'. in EU Law Stories II: Re-translating European Legal Concepts into Domestic Legal Contexts (Davies, Bill; Nicola, Fernanda (eds), Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 2022). 

Butler, Graham 'EU Secondary Law Unable to Impose Unanimity within the Council for Modifying/Amending EU International Agreements: Commission v Council (South Korea)' 16 March 2021, EU Law Live (2022). 

Butler, Graham 'Lower Instance National Courts and Tribunals in Member States and Their Judicial Dialogue with the Court of Justice of the European Union’ (2021) 4 (2) Nordic Journal of European Law, 19-36.

Butler, Graham 'The Modification/Amendment of EU International Agreements – Unanimous or Qualified Majority Decision-making? The Opinion of AG Richard de la Tour in Commission v Council (South Korea)' 2 November 2021, EU Law Live (2021). 

Butler, Graham 'Immunities of national central banks in Member States under EU law: Commission v Slovenia (ECB Archives)' (2021) 58 (6) Common Market Law Review, 1895-1916. 

Butler, Graham 'The EU’s Contractual Relations and the Arbitration Clause: Disputes at the Court of Justice of the European Union' (2021) 46 (3) European Law Review, 345-363. 

Butler, Graham 'State Monopolies and the Free Movement of Goods in EU Law: Getting Beyond Obscure Clarity' (2021) 48 (3) Legal Issues of Economic Integration, 285-308. 

Butler, Graham 'The Balance of Powers and the EU’s Common Foreign and Security Policy', Executive-Legislative (Im)balance in the European Union (Fromage, Diane; Herranz-Surrallés, Anna; Christiansen, Thomas (eds), Parliamentary Democracy in Europe, Hart Publishing: Oxford, 2021). ISBN: 978-1-50993-000-5. pp. 263-284. 

Butler, Graham 'The European Rule of Law Standard, the Nordic States, and EU Law'. in Rule of Law in the EU: 30 Years After the Fall of the Berlin Wall (Bakardjieva Engelbrekt, Antonina; Moberg, Andreas; Nergelius, Joakim (eds), Hart Publishing/Bloomsbury: Oxford, 2021). ISBN: 978-1-5099-4159-9. pp. 243-264. 

Butler, Graham 'Private Pensions and EU Internal Market Law: Enhancing Retirement Provision through Harmonisation', (2021) 32 (5) European Business Law Review, 853-876. 

Butler, Graham; Wessel, Ramses A 'Happy birthday ERTA! 50 Years of the Implied External Powers Doctrine in EU Law' 31 March 2021, European Law Blog (2021). 

Butler, Graham; Meling, Marius 'Horizontal Direct Effect of the Charter in EU Law: Ramifications for the European Economic Area', (2020) 3 (2) Nordic Journal of European Law, 1-27. 

Kochenov, Dimitry; Butler, Graham 'The Independence and Lawful Composition of the Court of Justice of the European Union: Replacement of Advocate General Sharpston and the Battle for the Integrity of the Institution'. in Jean Monnet Working Papers series (Weiler, Joseph H. H.; de Búrca, Gráinne (eds), Jean Monnet Center for International and Regional Economic Law & Justice, School of Law, New York University: New York, 2020). 

Butler, Graham 'Mind the (Homogeneity) Gap: Independence of Referring Bodies Requesting Advisory Opinions from the EFTA Court', (2020) 44 (2) Fordham International Law Journal, 307-352. 

Butler, Graham 'The Future of EU International Agreements as Legal Instruments in the ASEAN Region', (2020) 7 (2) Journal of International and Comparative Law, 287-305. 

Butler, Graham 'Independence of non-judicial bodies and orders for a preliminary reference to the Court of Justice', (2020) 45 (6) European Law Review, 870-887.

Butler, Graham; Cotter, John 'Just Say No! Appeals Against Orders for a Preliminary Reference', (2020) 26 (3) European Public Law, 615-642. 

Butler, Graham 'The European Defence Union and Denmark’s Defence Opt-out: A Legal Appraisal', (2020) 25 (1) European Foreign Affairs Review, 117-150. 

Butler, Graham; Snaith, Holly 'Negative Solidarity: The European Union and the Financial Crisis', Transnational Solidarity: Concept, Challenges and Opportunities (Krunke, Helle; Petersen, Hanne; Manners, Ian (eds), Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 2020. pp. 128-164. 

Butler, Graham 'An Interim Post-mortem: Specialised Courts in the EU Judicial Architecture after the Civil Service Tribunal', (2020) 17 (3) International Organizations Law Review 586-632. 

Banke, Cecilie Felicia Stokholm; Nissen, Christine; Schmidt, Jakob Linnet; Olesen, Mikkel Runge; Mouritzen, Hans; Rahbek-Clemmensen, Jon; Pedersen, Rasmus Brun; Butler, Graham; Andersen, Louise Riis (2020) European Defence Cooperation and the Danish Defence Opt-out: Report on the developments in the EU and Europe in the field of security and defence policy and their implications for Denmark (Europæisk forsvarssamarbejde og det danske forsvarsforbehold: Udredning om udviklingen i EU og Europa på det sikkerheds- og forsvarspolitiske område og betydningen for Danmark). Copenhagen (København): Danish Institute for International Studies (Dansk Institut for Internationale Studier). ISBN: 978-87-7605-999-6. 108 pp. 

Butler, Graham 'Constitutional Law of the EU’s Common Foreign and Security Policy: Competence and Institutions in External Relations', Modern Studies in European Law, Hart Publishing/Bloomsbury: Oxford, 2019. 372 pp. 

Banke, Cecilie Felicia Stokholm; Nissen, Christine; Schmidt, Jakob Linnet; Olesen, Mikkel Runge; Mouritzen, Hans; Rahbek-Clemmensen, Jon; Pedersen, Rasmus Brun; Butler, Graham; Andersen, Louise Riis (2019) Europæisk forsvarssamarbejde og det danske forsvarsforbehold: Udredning om udviklingen i EU og Europa på det sikkerheds- og forsvarspolitiske område og betydningen for Danmark (European Defence Cooperation and the Danish Defence Reservation: Investigation on developments in the EU and Europe in the field of security and defence policy and the importance for Denmark). København (Copenhagen): Dansk Institut for Internationale Studier (Danish Institute for International Studies). ISBN (Print): 978-87760-5985-9. ISBN (Electronic): 978-87760-5986-6. 108 pp. 

Butler, Graham 'The EU Flexibility Clause is Dead, Long Live the EU Flexibility Clause', The Future of Europe: Political and Legal Integration Beyond Brexit (Bakardjieva Engelbrekt, Antonina; Groussot, Xavier (eds), Swedish Studies in European Law, Hart Publishing: Oxford, 2019). ISBN: 978-1-5099-2330-4. pp. 63-95. 

Butler, Graham 'United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO): The EU’s transition from observer to full participant on an ad hoc basis', Research Handbook on the European Union and International Organizations (Wessel, Ramses A.; Odermatt, Jed (eds), Research Handbooks in International Law, Edward Elgar: Cheltenham, 2019). ISBN: 978-1-78643-892-8. pp. 142-164. 

Butler, Graham 'Solidaritet og dets grænser for økonomisk integration i EU’s indre marke', (2019) 26 EU-ret & Menneskeret, 3-27. 

Butler, Graham ‘Chamber of Deputies’, Max Planck Encyclopedia of Comparative Constitutional Law, (Grote, Rainer; Lachenmann, Frauke; Wolfrum, Rüdiger (eds), Oxford University Press, 2019). 

Butler, Graham; Sadl, Urska 'The Preliminaries of a Reference', (2018) 43 (1) European Law Review, 120-128. 

Butler, Graham 'Pre-Ratification Judicial Review of International Agreements to be Concluded by the European Union', The Court of Justice of the European Union: Multidisciplinary Perspectives (Derlén, Mattias; Lindholm, Johan (eds), Swedish Studies in European Law, Hart Publishing: Oxford, 2018). ISBN: 978-1-5099-1909-3. pp. 53-77. 

Butler, Graham; Barrett, Gavin 'Europe’s ‘Other’ Open-Border Zone: The Common Travel Area under the Shadow of Brexit', (2018) 20 (1) Cambridge Yearbook of European Legal Studies, pp. 252-286. 

Butler, Graham 'Solidarity and its limits for economic integration in the European Unions’s internal market', (2018) 25 (3) Maastricht Journal of European and Comparative Law, 310-331.

Butler, Graham, 'Legal Responses to the European Union’s Migration Crisis', (2018) 19 (2) San Diego International Law Journal, 277-310. 

Butler, Graham, 'In Search of the Political Question Doctrine in EU Law', (2018) 45 (4) Legal Issues of Economic Integration, 329–354. 

Butler, Graham 'Tvistbilæggelse mellem EU-medlemsstaterne ved Den Europæiske Unions Domstol', (2018) 21 (1) Europarättslig Tidskrift (Swedish European Law Journal), 57-74. 

Butler, Graham 'EU Foreign Policy and Other EU External Relations in Times of Crisis: Forcing the Law to Overlap?', Irregular Migration as a Challenge for Democracy (Kużelewska, Elżbieta; Weatherburn, Amy; Kloza; Dariusz (eds), European Integration and Democracy, Intersentia: Cambridge, 2018). ISBN: 978-1-7806-8622-6. 51-81. 

Butler, Graham 'A post-national legal order: Does the European Union have an imposed constitution?', The Law and Legitimacy of Imposed Constitutions (Albert, Richard; Contiades, Xenophon; Fotiadou, Alkmene (eds), Comparative Constitutional Change, Routledge: Abingdon, 2018). ISBN: 978-1-1384-8898-4. 227-242. 

Butler, Graham 'Implementing a complete system of legal remedies in EU foreign affairs law', (2018) 24 (3) Columbia Journal of European Law, 637-676. 

Butler, Graham 'The Court of Justice as an inter-state court', (2017) 36 (1) Yearbook of European Law, 179-208. 

Butler, Graham 'The Coming of Age of the Court’s Jurisdiction in the Common Foreign and Security Policy', (2017) 13 (4) European Constitutional Law Review, 673-703.

Butler, Graham ‘The European Union and Diplomatic Law: An Emerging Actor in Twenty-First Century Diplomacy’, Diplomatic Law in a New Millennium, (Behrens, Paul (ed), Oxford University Press: Oxford, 2017). ISBN: 978-0-19-879594-0. pp. 319-340. 

Butler, Graham 'Standing the Test of Time: Reference for a Preliminary Ruling', (2017) 20 (1) Irish Journal of European Law, 103-116. 

Butler, Graham 'A Question of Jurisdiction: Art. 267 TFEU Preliminary References of a CFSP Nature', (2017) 2 (1) European Papers, 201-208. 

Butler, Graham; Jensen, Mads Dagnis 'Storbritanniens had-kærlighedsforhold til Den Europæiske Union' (The United Kingdom's Love-Hate Relationship with the European Union), Politologisk Årbog 2016-2017 (Political Science Yearbook 2016-2017) (Grøn, Caroline Howard) (ed), Hans Reitzels Forlag: Copenhagen, 2017). ISBN: 978-87-412-6980-1. pp. 20-23. 

Butler, Graham 'Constitutional Limits of the EU’s Common Foreign and Security Policy', (2016) University of Copenhagen and University of Iceland, Joint PhD Degree.

Butler, Graham 'Attacking or Defending? Jurisdiction of the Court of Justice in the EU's Common Foreign and Security Policy', (2016) 19 (4) Europarättslig Tidskrift (Swedish European Law Journal), 671-684. 

Butler, Graham; Ratcovich, Martin 'Operation Sophia in Uncharted Waters: European and International Law Challenges for the EU Naval Mission in the Mediterranean Sea', (2016) 85 (3) Nordic Journal of International Law, 235-259.

Butler, Graham; Jensen, Mads Dagnis; Snaith, Holly (eds), ‘British Exit from the EU: Legal and Political Implications’ (Debate Section), (2016) 23 (9) Journal of European Public Policy, pp. 1278-1328. 

Butler, Graham; Jensen, Mads Dagnis; Snaith, Holly '‘Slow change may pull us apart’: debating a British exit from the European Union', in Butler, Graham; Jensen, Mads Dagnis; Snaith, Holly (eds), ‘British Exit from the EU: Legal and Political Implications’ (Debate Section), (2016) 23 (9) Journal of European Public Policy, 1278-1284. 

Butler, Graham ‘A new means of dissemination for doctoral research in Danish legal education’, (2016) 39 (1/152) Retfaerd (Nordic Journal of Law and Justice), 88-95.

Butler, Graham 'The Ultimate Stumbling Block? The Common Foreign and Security Policy, and Accession of the European Union to the European Convention on Human Rights', (2016) 39 (1) Dublin University Law Journal, 229-244. 

Butler, Graham ‘Pinpointing the appropriate legal basis for external action’, (2015) 6 (2) European Journal of Risk Regulation, 323-328.

Butler, Graham ‘A Political Decision Disguised as Legal Argument? Opinion 2/13 and European Union Accession to the European Convention on Human Rights’, (2015) 31 (81) Utrecht Journal of International and European Law, 104–111.

Butler, Graham ‘The Interparliamentary Conference on the CFSP/CSDP: A new forum for the Oireachtas in Irish and EU foreign policy?’, (2015) 26 Irish Studies in International Affairs, 163-186.

Butler, Graham ‘Not a "real" Common Travel Area: Pachero v Minister for Justice and Equality’, (2015) 54 Irish Jurist, 155-164.  

Butler, Graham ‘The Road to a Court of Appeal—Part I: History and Constitutional Amendment’, (2015) 33 (14) Irish Law Times, 208-211.

Butler, Graham ‘The Road to a Court of Appeal—Part II: Distinguishing Features and Establishment’, (2015) 33 (15) Irish Law Times, 222-226. 

 

For more, see www.grahambutler.eu