A 1.9 EARTH RADIUS ROCKY PLANET AND THE DISCOVERY OF A NON-TRANSITING PLANET IN THE KEPLER-20 SYSTEM

Publication: Research - peer-reviewJournal article

DOI

  • Lars A. Buchhave
    Lars A. BuchhaveUniv Copenhagen, University of Copenhagen, Nat Hist Museum Denmark, Ctr Star & Planet FormatUniv Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst
  • Courtney D. Dressing
    Courtney D. DressingCALTECH, California Institute of Technology, Div Geol & Planetary Sci
  • Xavier Dumusque
    Xavier DumusqueUniv Geneva, University of Geneva, Observ Astron
  • Ken Rice
    Ken RiceUniv Edinburgh, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observ, Inst Astron, SUPA
  • Andrew Vanderburg
    Andrew VanderburgHarvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, Harvard University, Smithsonian Institution
  • Annelies Mortier
    Annelies MortierUniv St Andrews, University of St Andrews, SUPA, Sch Phys & Astron
  • Mercedes Lopez-Morales
    Mercedes Lopez-MoralesHarvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, Harvard University, Smithsonian Institution
  • Eric Lopez
    Eric LopezUniv Edinburgh, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observ, Inst Astron, SUPA
  • Mia S. Lundkvist
  • Hans Kjeldsen
  • Laura Affer
    Laura AfferINAF Osservatorio Astron Palermo, Istituto Nazionale Astrofisica - Italy
  • Aldo S. Bonomo
    Aldo S. BonomoINAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino
  • David Charbonneau
    David CharbonneauHarvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, Harvard University, Smithsonian Institution
  • Andrew Collier Cameron
    Andrew Collier CameronUniv St Andrews, University of St Andrews, SUPA, Sch Phys & Astron
  • Rosario Cosentino
    Rosario CosentinoINAF Fdn Galileo Galilei
  • Pedro Figueira
    Pedro FigueiraUniv Porto, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Inst Astrofis & Ciencias Espaco
  • Aldo F. M. Fiorenzano
    Aldo F. M. FiorenzanoINAF Fdn Galileo Galilei
  • Avet Harutyunyan
    Avet HarutyunyanINAF Fdn Galileo Galilei
  • Raphaelle D. Haywood
    Raphaelle D. HaywoodHarvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, Harvard University, Smithsonian Institution
  • John Asher Johnson
    John Asher JohnsonHarvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, Harvard University, Smithsonian Institution
  • David W. Latham
    David W. LathamHarvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, Harvard University, Smithsonian Institution
  • Christophe Lovis
    Christophe LovisUniv Geneva, University of Geneva, Observ Astron
  • Luca Malavolta
    Luca MalavoltaUniv Padua, Dipartimento Fis & Astron Galileo GalileiINAF Osservatorio Astron Padova, University of Padua
  • Michel Mayor
    Michel MayorUniv Geneva, University of Geneva, Observ Astron
  • Giusi Micela
    Giusi MicelaINAF Osservatorio Astron Palermo, Istituto Nazionale Astrofisica - Italy
  • Emilio Molinari
    Emilio MolinariINAF Fdn Galileo GalileiINAF IASF Milano, Istituto Nazionale Astrofisica - Italy
  • Fatemeh Motalebi
    Fatemeh MotalebiUniv Geneva, University of Geneva, Observ Astron
  • Valerio Nascimbeni
    Valerio NascimbeniUniv Padua, University of Padua, Dipartimento Fis & Astron Galileo Galilei
  • Francesco Pepe
    Francesco PepeUniv Geneva, University of Geneva, Observ Astron
  • David F. Phillips
    David F. PhillipsHarvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, Harvard University, Smithsonian Institution
  • Giampaolo Piotto
    Giampaolo PiottoUniv Padua, Dipartimento Fis & Astron Galileo GalileiINAF Osservatorio Astron Padova, University of Padua
  • Don Pollacco
    Don PollaccoUniv Warwick, University of Warwick, Dept Phys
  • Didier Queloz
    Didier QuelozUniv Geneva, University of Geneva, Observ AstronCavendish Lab, University of Cambridge
  • Dimitar Sasselov
    Dimitar SasselovHarvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, Harvard University, Smithsonian Institution
  • Damien Segransan
    Damien SegransanUniv Geneva, University of Geneva, Observ Astron
  • Alessandro Sozzetti
    Alessandro SozzettiINAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino
  • Stephane Udry
    Stephane UdryUniv Geneva, University of Geneva, Observ Astron
  • Chris Watson
    Chris WatsonQueens Univ Belfast, Queens University Belfast, Sch Math & Phys, Astrophys Res Ctr

Kepler-20 is a solar-type star (V = 12.5) hosting a compact system of five transiting planets, all packed within the orbital distance of Mercury in our own solar system. A transition from rocky to gaseous planets with a planetary transition radius of similar to 1.6 R-circle plus has recently been proposed by several articles in the literature. Kepler-20b (R-p similar to 1.9 R-circle plus) has a size beyond this transition radius; however, previous mass measurements were not sufficiently precise to allow definite conclusions to be drawn regarding its composition. We present new mass measurements of three of the planets in the Kepler-20 system that are facilitated by 104 radial velocity measurements from the HARPS-N spectrograph and 30 archival Keck/HIRES observations, as well as an updated photometric analysis of the Kepler data and an asteroseismic analysis of the host star (M-star = 0.948 +/- 0.051M and R-star =. 0.964 +/- 0.018 R). Kepler-20b is a 1.868(-0.034)(+0.066) R-circle plus planetiat 3.7 day period with a mass of 9.70(-1.44)(+1.41) M-circle plus, resulting in a mean density of 8.2(-1.3)(+1.5) g cm(-3), indicating a rocky composition with an iron-tosilicate ratio consistent with that of the Earth. This makes Kepler-20b the most massive planet with a rocky composition found to date. Furthermore, we report the discovery of an additional non-transiting planet with a minimum mass of 19.96(-3.61)(+3.08) M-circle plus and an orbital period of similar to 34 days in the gap between Kepler-20f (P similar to 11 days) and Kepler-20d (P similar to 78 days).

Original languageEnglish
Article number160
JournalThe Astronomical Journal
Volume152
Issue number6
Number of pages12
ISSN0004-6256
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2016

    Keywords

  • planetary systems, planets and satellites: composition, stars: individual, techniques: radial velocities, SUPER-EARTHS, MASS PLANET, SOLAR-TYPE, HARPS-N, STELLAR, STARS, ASTEROSEISMOLOGY, PARAMETERS, EXOPLANETS, CANDIDATES

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