Kepler Object of Interest Network I. First results combining ground- and space-based observations of Kepler systems with transit timing variations

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  • C. von Essen
  • A. Ofir, Weizmann Inst Sci, Weizmann Institute of Science, Dept Earth & Planetary Sci, S. Dreizler, Georg August Univ Gottingen, University of Gottingen, Inst Astrophys, E. Agol, NASA, National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA), Astrobiol Inst, Virtual Planetary Lab Team, J. Freudenthal, Georg August Univ Gottingen, University of Gottingen, Inst Astrophys, J. Hernandez, UNAM, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Inst Astron, S. Wedemeyer, Univ Oslo, University of Oslo, Inst Theoret Astrophys, V. Parkash, Monash Univ, Monash University, Sch Phys & Astron, Monash Ctr Astrophys MoCA, H. J. Deeg, Univ La Laguna, Universidad de la Laguna, Dept Astrofis, S. Hoyer, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Univ La Laguna, Universidad de la Laguna, Dept Astrofis, Aix Marseille Univ, Aix-Marseille Universite, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), CNRS, LAM, B. M. Morris, Univ Washington, University of Washington, University of Washington Seattle, Dept Astron, A. C. Becker, Univ Washington, University of Washington, University of Washington Seattle, Dept Astron, L. Sun, Chinese Acad Sci, Yunnan Astronomical Observatory, NAOC, CAS, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yunnan Observ, S. H. Gu, Chinese Acad Sci, Yunnan Astronomical Observatory, NAOC, CAS, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yunnan Observ, E. Herrero, CSIC, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), CSIC - Instituto de Ciencias del Espacio (ICE), Autonomous University of Barcelona, Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), IEEC, Inst Ciencies Espai, L. Tal-Or, Tel Aviv Univ, Tel Aviv University, Sch Geosci, Raymond & Beverly Sackler Fac Exact Sci, K. Poppenhaeger, Queens Univ Belfast, Queens University Belfast, Sch Math & Phys, Astrophys Res Ctr, M. Mallonn, Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Leibniz Institut fur Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP),
  • S. Albrecht
  • S. Khalafinejad, Hamburg Univ, University of Hamburg, Hamburg Observ, P. Boumis, Natl Observ Athens, National Observatory of Athens, Inst Astron Astrophys Space Applicat & Remote Sen, C. Delgado-Correal, Univ Ferrara, University of Ferrara, Dipartimento Fis & Sci Terra, D. C. Fabrycky, Univ Chicago, University of Chicago, Dept Astron & Astrophys, R. Janulis, Vilnius State Univ, Vilnius University, Inst Theoret Phys & Astron, S. Lalitha, Indian Inst Astrophys, Department of Science & Technology (India), Indian Institute of Astrophysics, A. Liakos, Natl Observ Athens, National Observatory of Athens, Inst Astron Astrophys Space Applicat & Remote Sen, S. Mikolaitis, Vilnius State Univ, Vilnius University, Inst Theoret Phys & Astron, M. L. Moyano D'Angelo, Univ Catolica Norte, Universidad Catolica del Norte, Inst Astron, E. Sokov, Russian Acad Sci, Russian Academy of Sciences, Special Astrophysics Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Special Astrophys Observ, E. Pakstiene, Vilnius State Univ, Vilnius University, Inst Theoret Phys & Astron, A. Popov, Ural Fed Univ, Ural Federal University, Kourovka Astron Observ, V. Krushinsky, Ural Fed Univ, Ural Federal University, Kourovka Astron Observ, I. Ribas, CSIC, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), CSIC - Instituto de Ciencias del Espacio (ICE), Autonomous University of Barcelona, Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), IEEC, Inst Ciencies Espai, M. M. S. Rodriguez, UNAM, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Inst Astron, S. Rusov, Russian Acad Sci, Pulkovo Observatory, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg Scientific Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Cent Astron Observ Pulkovo, I. Sokova, Russian Acad Sci, Pulkovo Observatory, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg Scientific Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Cent Astron Observ Pulkovo, G. Tautvaisiene, Vilnius State Univ, Vilnius University, Inst Theoret Phys & Astron, X. Wang, Chinese Acad Sci, Yunnan Astronomical Observatory, NAOC, CAS, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yunnan Observ

During its four years of photometric observations, the Kepler space telescope detected thousands of exoplanets and exoplanet candidates. One of Kepler's greatest heritages has been the confirmation and characterization of hundreds of multi-planet systems via transit timing variations (TTVs). However, there are many interesting candidate systems displaying TTVs on such long timescales that the existing Kepler observations are of insufficient length to confirm and characterize them by means of this technique. To continue with Kepler's unique work, we have organized the "Kepler Object of Interest Network" (KOINet), a multi-site network formed of several telescopes located throughout America, Europe, and Asia. The goals of KOINet are to complete the TTV curves of systems where Kepler did not cover the interaction timescales well, to dynamically prove that some candidates are true planets (or not), to dynamically measure the masses and bulk densities of some planets, to find evidence for non-transiting planets in some of the systems, to extend Kepler's baseline adding new data with the main purpose of improving current models of TTVs, and to build a platform that can observe almost anywhere on the northern hemisphere, at almost any time. KOINet has been operational since March 2014. Here we show some promising first results obtained from analyzing seven primary transits of KOI1-0410.01, KOI-0525.01, KOI-0760.01, and KOI-0902.01, in addition to the Kepler data acquired during the first and second observing seasons of KOINet. While carefully choosing the targets we set demanding constraints on timing precision (at least 1 min) and photometric precision (as good as one part per thousand) that were achieved by means of our observing strategies and data analysis techniques. For KOI-0410.01, new transit data revealed a turnover of its TTVs. We carried out an in-depth study of the system, which is identified in the NASA Data Validation Report as a false positive. Among others, we investigated a gravitationally bound hierarchical triple star system and a planet-star system. While the simultaneous transit fitting of ground- and space-based data allowed for a planet solution, we could not fully reject the three-star scenario. New data, already scheduled in the upcoming 2018 observing season, will set tighter constraints on the nature of the system.

Original languageEnglish
Article number79
JournalAstronomy & Astrophysics
Volume615
Number of pages15
ISSN1432-0746
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 17 Jul 2018

    Research areas

  • instrumentation: photometers, methods: data analysis, techniques: photometric, planets and satellites: dynamical evolution and stability, PLANETARY SYSTEM, LIGHT CURVES, EXTRASOLAR PLANETS, PARAMETER-ESTIMATION, CCD PHOTOMETRY, MASS, TIME, SERIES, STAR, CONFIRMATION

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