The genetic history of Ice Age Europe

Research output: Research - peer-reviewJournal article

DOI

  • Qiaomei Fu
    Qiaomei FuKey Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins of Chinese Academy of Sciences, IVPP, CAS, Beijing 100044, China
  • Cosimo Posth
    Cosimo PosthInstitute for Archaeological Sciences, Archaeo and Palaeogenetics, University of Tübingen, 72070 Tübingen, Germany
  • Mateja Hajdinjak
    Mateja HajdinjakDepartment of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
  • Martin Petr
    Martin PetrDepartment of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
  • Swapan Mallick
    Swapan MallickDepartment of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
  • Daniel Fernandes
    Daniel FernandesSchool of Archaeology and Earth Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland
  • Anja Furtwängler
    Anja FurtwänglerInstitute for Archaeological Sciences, Archaeo and Palaeogenetics, University of Tübingen, 72070 Tübingen, Germany
  • Wolfgang Haak
    Wolfgang HaakDepartment of Archaeogenetics, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, 07745 Jena, Germany
  • Matthias Meyer
    Matthias MeyerDepartment of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
  • Alissa Mittnik
    Alissa MittnikInstitute for Archaeological Sciences, Archaeo and Palaeogenetics, University of Tübingen, 72070 Tübingen, Germany
  • Birgit Nickel
    Birgit NickelDepartment of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
  • Alexander Peltzer
    Alexander PeltzerInstitute for Archaeological Sciences, Archaeo and Palaeogenetics, University of Tübingen, 72070 Tübingen, Germany
  • Nadin Rohland
    Nadin RohlandDepartment of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
  • Vivian Slon
    Vivian SlonDepartment of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
  • Sahra Talamo
    Sahra TalamoDepartment of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
  • Iosif Lazaridis
    Iosif LazaridisDepartment of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
  • Mark Lipson
    Mark LipsonDepartment of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
  • Iain Mathieson
    Iain MathiesonDepartment of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
  • Stephan Schiffels
    Stephan SchiffelsDepartment of Archaeogenetics, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, 07745 Jena, Germany
  • Pontus Skoglund
    Pontus SkoglundDepartment of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
  • Anatoly P. Derevianko
    Anatoly P. DereviankoInstitute of Archaeology and Ethnography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, 17 Novosibirsk, RU-630090, Russia
  • Nikolai Drozdov
    Nikolai DrozdovInstitute of Archaeology and Ethnography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, 17 Novosibirsk, RU-630090, Russia
  • Vyacheslav Slavinsky
    Vyacheslav SlavinskyInstitute of Archaeology and Ethnography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, 17 Novosibirsk, RU-630090, Russia
  • Alexander Tsybankov
    Alexander TsybankovInstitute of Archaeology and Ethnography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, 17 Novosibirsk, RU-630090, Russia
  • Renata Grifoni Cremonesi
    Renata Grifoni CremonesiDipartimento di Civiltà e Forme del Sapere, Università di Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Italy
  • Francesco Mallegni
    Francesco MallegniDepartment of Biology, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Italy
  • Bernard Gély
    Bernard GélyDirection régionale des affaires culturelles Rhône-Alpes, 69283 Lyon, Cedex 01, France
  • Eligio Vacca
    Eligio VaccaDipartimento di Biologia, Università degli Studi di Bari ‘Aldo Moro’, 70125 Bari, Italy
  • Manuel R. González Morales
    Manuel R. González MoralesInstituto Internacional de Investigaciones Prehistóricas, Universidad de Cantabria, 39005 Santander, Spain
  • Lawrence G. Straus
    Lawrence G. StrausInstituto Internacional de Investigaciones Prehistóricas, Universidad de Cantabria, 39005 Santander, Spain
  • Christine Neugebauer-Maresch
    Christine Neugebauer-MareschQuaternary Archaeology, Institute for Oriental and European Archaeology, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1010 Vienna, Austria
  • Maria Teschler-Nicola
    Maria Teschler-NicolaDepartment of Anthropology, Natural History Museum Vienna, 1010 Vienna, Austria
  • Silviu Constantin
    Silviu Constantin“Emil Racoviţă” Institute of Speleology, 010986 Bucharest 12, Romania
  • Oana Teodora Moldovan
    Oana Teodora Moldovan“Emil Racoviţă” Institute of Speleology, Cluj Branch, 400006 Cluj, Romania
  • Stefano Benazzi
    Stefano BenazziDepartment of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
  • Marco Peresani
    Marco PeresaniSezione di Scienze Preistoriche e Antropologiche, Dipartimento di Studi Umanistici, Università di Ferrara, 44100 Ferrara, Italy
  • Donato Coppola
    Donato CoppolaUniversità degli Studi di Bari ‘Aldo Moro’, 70125 Bari, Italy
  • Martina Lari
    Martina LariDipartimento di Biologia, Università di Firenze, 50122 Florence, Italy
  • Stefano Ricci
    Stefano RicciDipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, della Terra e dell’Ambiente, U.R. Preistoria e Antropologia, Università degli Studi di Siena, 53100 Siena, Italy
  • Annamaria Ronchitelli
    Annamaria RonchitelliDipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, della Terra e dell’Ambiente, U.R. Preistoria e Antropologia, Università degli Studi di Siena, 53100 Siena, Italy
  • Frédérique Valentin
    Frédérique ValentinCNRS/UMR 7041 ArScAn MAE, 92023 Nanterre, France
  • Corinne Thevenet
    Corinne ThevenetINRAP/UMR 8215 Trajectoires 21, 92023 Nanterre, France
  • Kurt Wehrberger
    Kurt WehrbergerUlmer Museum, 89073 Ulm, Germany
  • Dan Grigorescu
    Dan GrigorescuUniversity of Bucharest, Faculty of Geology and Geophysics, Department of Geology, 01041 Bucharest, Romania
  • Hélène Rougier
    Hélène RougierDepartment of Anthropology, California State University Northridge, Northridge, California 91330-8244, USA
  • Isabelle Crevecoeur
    Isabelle CrevecoeurUniversité de Bordeaux, CNRS, UMR 5199-PACEA, 33615 Pessac Cedex, France
  • Damien Flas
    Damien FlasTRACES – UMR 5608, Université Toulouse Jean Jaurès, Maison de la Recherche, 31058 Toulouse Cedex 9, France
  • Patrick Semal
    Patrick SemalRoyal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, 1000 Brussels, Belgium
  • Marcello Mannino
  • Christophe Cupillard
    Christophe CupillardService Régional d’Archéologie de Franche-Comté, 25043 Besançon Cedex, France
  • Hervé Bocherens
    Hervé BocherensDepartment of Geosciences, Biogeology, University of Tübingen, 72074 Tübingen, Germany
  • Nicholas J. Conard
    Nicholas J. ConardSenckenberg Centre for Human Evolution and Palaeoenvironment, University of Tübingen, 72072 Tübingen, Germany
  • Katerina Harvati
    Katerina HarvatiSenckenberg Centre for Human Evolution and Palaeoenvironment, University of Tübingen, 72072 Tübingen, Germany
  • Vyacheslav Moiseyev
    Vyacheslav MoiseyevMuseum of Anthropology and Ethnography, Saint Petersburg 34, Russia
  • Dorothée G. Drucker
    Dorothée G. DruckerDepartment of Geosciences, Biogeology, University of Tübingen, 72074 Tübingen, Germany
  • Jiří Svoboda
    Jiří SvobodaDepartment of Anthropology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, 611 37 Brno, Czech Republic
  • Michael P. Richards
    Michael P. RichardsDepartment of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
  • David Caramelli
    David CaramelliDipartimento di Biologia, Università di Firenze, 50122 Florence, Italy
  • Ron Pinhasi
    Ron PinhasiSchool of Archaeology and Earth Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland
  • Janet Kelso
    Janet KelsoDepartment of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
  • Nick Patterson
    Nick PattersonBroad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA
  • Johannes Krause
    Johannes KrauseInstitute for Archaeological Sciences, Archaeo and Palaeogenetics, University of Tübingen, 72070 Tübingen, Germany
  • Svante Pääbo
    Svante PääboDepartment of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
  • David Reich
    David ReichDepartment of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
Modern humans arrived in Europe ~45,000 years ago, but little is known about their genetic composition before the start of farming ~8,500 years ago. Here we analyse genome-wide data from 51 Eurasians from ~45,000–7,000 years ago. Over this time, the proportion of Neanderthal DNA decreased from 3–6% to around 2%, consistent with natural selection against Neanderthal variants in modern humans. Whereas there is no evidence of the earliest modern humans in Europe contributing to the genetic composition of present-day Europeans, all individuals between ~37,000 and ~14,000 years ago descended from a single founder population which forms part of the ancestry of present-day Europeans. An ~35,000-year-old individual from northwest Europe represents an early branch of this founder population which was then displaced across a broad region, before reappearing in southwest Europe at the height of the last Ice Age ~19,000 years ago. During the major warming period after ~14,000 years ago, a genetic component related to present-day Near Easterners became widespread in Europe. These results document how population turnover and migration have been recurring themes of European prehistory.
Original languageEnglish
JournalNature
Volume534
Issue number7606
Pages (from-to)200-205
Number of pages6
ISSN0028-0836
DOIs
StatePublished - 9 Jun 2016

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