The genetic history of Ice Age Europe

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    Qiaomei Fu, Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins of Chinese Academy of Sciences, IVPP, CAS, Beijing 100044, China, Cosimo Posth, Institute for Archaeological Sciences, Archaeo and Palaeogenetics, University of Tübingen, 72070 Tübingen, Germany, Mateja Hajdinjak, Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, 04103 Leipzig, Germany, Martin Petr, Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, 04103 Leipzig, Germany, Swapan Mallick, Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA, Daniel Fernandes, School of Archaeology and Earth Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland, Anja Furtwängler, Institute for Archaeological Sciences, Archaeo and Palaeogenetics, University of Tübingen, 72070 Tübingen, Germany, Wolfgang Haak, Department of Archaeogenetics, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, 07745 Jena, Germany, Matthias Meyer, Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, 04103 Leipzig, Germany, Alissa Mittnik, Institute for Archaeological Sciences, Archaeo and Palaeogenetics, University of Tübingen, 72070 Tübingen, Germany, Birgit Nickel, Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, 04103 Leipzig, Germany, Alexander Peltzer, Institute for Archaeological Sciences, Archaeo and Palaeogenetics, University of Tübingen, 72070 Tübingen, Germany, Nadin Rohland, Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA, Vivian Slon, Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, 04103 Leipzig, Germany, Sahra Talamo, Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, 04103 Leipzig, Germany, Iosif Lazaridis, Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA, Mark Lipson, Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA, Iain Mathieson, Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA, Stephan Schiffels, Department of Archaeogenetics, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, 07745 Jena, Germany, Pontus Skoglund, Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA, Anatoly P. Derevianko, Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, 17 Novosibirsk, RU-630090, Russia, Nikolai Drozdov, Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, 17 Novosibirsk, RU-630090, Russia, Vyacheslav Slavinsky, Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, 17 Novosibirsk, RU-630090, Russia, Alexander Tsybankov, Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, 17 Novosibirsk, RU-630090, Russia, Renata Grifoni Cremonesi, Dipartimento di Civiltà e Forme del Sapere, Università di Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Italy, Francesco Mallegni, Department of Biology, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Italy, Bernard Gély, Direction régionale des affaires culturelles Rhône-Alpes, 69283 Lyon, Cedex 01, France, Eligio Vacca, Dipartimento di Biologia, Università degli Studi di Bari ‘Aldo Moro’, 70125 Bari, Italy, Manuel R. González Morales, Instituto Internacional de Investigaciones Prehistóricas, Universidad de Cantabria, 39005 Santander, Spain, Lawrence G. Straus, Instituto Internacional de Investigaciones Prehistóricas, Universidad de Cantabria, 39005 Santander, Spain, Christine Neugebauer-Maresch, Quaternary Archaeology, Institute for Oriental and European Archaeology, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1010 Vienna, Austria, Maria Teschler-Nicola, Department of Anthropology, Natural History Museum Vienna, 1010 Vienna, Austria, Silviu Constantin, “Emil Racoviţă” Institute of Speleology, 010986 Bucharest 12, Romania, Oana Teodora Moldovan, “Emil Racoviţă” Institute of Speleology, Cluj Branch, 400006 Cluj, Romania, Stefano Benazzi, Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, 04103 Leipzig, Germany, Marco Peresani, Sezione di Scienze Preistoriche e Antropologiche, Dipartimento di Studi Umanistici, Università di Ferrara, 44100 Ferrara, Italy, Donato Coppola, Università degli Studi di Bari ‘Aldo Moro’, 70125 Bari, Italy, Martina Lari, Dipartimento di Biologia, Università di Firenze, 50122 Florence, Italy, Stefano Ricci, Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, della Terra e dell’Ambiente, U.R. Preistoria e Antropologia, Università degli Studi di Siena, 53100 Siena, Italy, Annamaria Ronchitelli, Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, della Terra e dell’Ambiente, U.R. Preistoria e Antropologia, Università degli Studi di Siena, 53100 Siena, Italy, Frédérique Valentin, CNRS/UMR 7041 ArScAn MAE, 92023 Nanterre, France, Corinne Thevenet, INRAP/UMR 8215 Trajectoires 21, 92023 Nanterre, France, Kurt Wehrberger, Ulmer Museum, 89073 Ulm, Germany, Dan Grigorescu, University of Bucharest, Faculty of Geology and Geophysics, Department of Geology, 01041 Bucharest, Romania, Hélène Rougier, Department of Anthropology, California State University Northridge, Northridge, California 91330-8244, USA, Isabelle Crevecoeur, Université de Bordeaux, CNRS, UMR 5199-PACEA, 33615 Pessac Cedex, France, Damien Flas, TRACES – UMR 5608, Université Toulouse Jean Jaurès, Maison de la Recherche, 31058 Toulouse Cedex 9, France, Patrick Semal, Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, 1000 Brussels, Belgium,
  • Marcello Mannino
  • Christophe Cupillard, Service Régional d’Archéologie de Franche-Comté, 25043 Besançon Cedex, France, Hervé Bocherens, Department of Geosciences, Biogeology, University of Tübingen, 72074 Tübingen, Germany, Nicholas J. Conard, Senckenberg Centre for Human Evolution and Palaeoenvironment, University of Tübingen, 72072 Tübingen, Germany, Katerina Harvati, Senckenberg Centre for Human Evolution and Palaeoenvironment, University of Tübingen, 72072 Tübingen, Germany, Vyacheslav Moiseyev, Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography, Saint Petersburg 34, Russia, Dorothée G. Drucker, Department of Geosciences, Biogeology, University of Tübingen, 72074 Tübingen, Germany, Jiří Svoboda, Department of Anthropology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, 611 37 Brno, Czech Republic, Michael P. Richards, Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, 04103 Leipzig, Germany, David Caramelli, Dipartimento di Biologia, Università di Firenze, 50122 Florence, Italy, Ron Pinhasi, School of Archaeology and Earth Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland, Janet Kelso, Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, 04103 Leipzig, Germany, Nick Patterson, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA, Johannes Krause, Institute for Archaeological Sciences, Archaeo and Palaeogenetics, University of Tübingen, 72070 Tübingen, Germany, Svante Pääbo, Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, 04103 Leipzig, Germany, David Reich, Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
Modern humans arrived in Europe ~45,000 years ago, but little is known about their genetic composition before the start of farming ~8,500 years ago. Here we analyse genome-wide data from 51 Eurasians from ~45,000–7,000 years ago. Over this time, the proportion of Neanderthal DNA decreased from 3–6% to around 2%, consistent with natural selection against Neanderthal variants in modern humans. Whereas there is no evidence of the earliest modern humans in Europe contributing to the genetic composition of present-day Europeans, all individuals between ~37,000 and ~14,000 years ago descended from a single founder population which forms part of the ancestry of present-day Europeans. An ~35,000-year-old individual from northwest Europe represents an early branch of this founder population which was then displaced across a broad region, before reappearing in southwest Europe at the height of the last Ice Age ~19,000 years ago. During the major warming period after ~14,000 years ago, a genetic component related to present-day Near Easterners became widespread in Europe. These results document how population turnover and migration have been recurring themes of European prehistory.
Original languageEnglish
JournalNature
Volume534
Issue number7606
Pages (from-to)200-205
Number of pages6
ISSN0028-0836
DOIs
StatePublished - 9 Jun 2016

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