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Glatiramer Acetate in Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis: A Toolbox of Random Co-Polymers for Targeting Inflammatory Mechanisms of both the Innate and Adaptive Immune System?

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Multiple sclerosis is a disease of the central nervous system, resulting in the demyelination of neurons, causing mild to severe symptoms. Several anti-inflammatory treatments now play a significant role in ameliorating the disease. Glatiramer acetate (GA) is a formulation of random polypeptide copolymers for the treatment of relapsing-remitting MS by limiting the frequency of attacks. While evidence suggests the influence of GA on inflammatory responses, the targeted molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we review the multiple pharmacological modes-of-actions of glatiramer acetate in treatment of multiple sclerosis. We discuss in particular a newly discovered interaction between the leukocyte-expressed integrin α(M)β(2) (also called Mac-1, complement receptor 3, or CD11b/CD18) and perspectives on the GA co-polymers as an influence on the function of the innate immune system.
Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences (Online)
Pages (from-to)14579-605
Number of pages27
Publication statusPublished - 2012

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