Use of red ochre by early Neanderthals

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  • Trine Kellberg Nielsen
  • Wil Roebroeks,, Mark J. Sier, Dimitri De Loecker, Josep Maria Parés, Charles E. S. Arp, and Herman J. Mücher
The use of manganese and iron oxides by late Neandertals is well documented in Europe, especially for the period 60–40 kya. Such finds often have been interpreted as pigments even though their exact function is largely unknown. Here we report significantly older iron oxide finds that constitute the earliest documented use of red ochre by Neandertals. These finds were small concentrates of red material retrieved during excavations at Maastricht-Belvédère, The Netherlands. The excavations exposed a series of well-preserved flint artifact (and occasionally bone) scatters, formed in a river valley setting during a late Middle Pleistocene full interglacial period. Samples of the reddish material were submitted to various forms of analyses to study their physical properties. All analyses identified the red material as hematite. This is a nonlocal material that was imported to the site, possibly over dozens of kilometers. Identification of the Maastricht-Belvédère finds as hematite pushes the use of red ochre by (early) Neandertals back in time significantly, to minimally 200–250 kya (i.e., to the same time range as the early ochre use in the African record).
Original languageEnglish
JournalNational Academy of Sciences. Proceedings
Volume109
Issue number6
Pages (from-to)1889-1894
Number of pages6
ISSN0027-8424
StatePublished - 2012

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