Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen

International Advisor

Extended Curriculum Vitae

Lauritz Broder Holm-Nielsen

Commander of the Order of Dannebrog, Denmark

Gran Oficial del Orden Gabriela Mistral (Grand Officer), Chile



Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen is the Executive Director of the Sino-Danish Center (SDC). He was the Rector of Aarhus University from 2005-2013, is High Level Advisor to the Senior Management Group at Aarhus University (AU), and is Chairman of the Danish National Nature Fund and the Committee for Research Infrastructure. He is President of EuroScience, and member of the Governing Board of Gothenburg University.

Throughout his career he has been member of and chaired numerous councils, boards and advisory bodies in higher education and research, and in his own academic field, biology and the environment. In addition he has been dedicated to international development.

He was Vice President of the European University Association (EUA), Chairman of the Nordic University Association, Vice Chairman of Universities Denmark, Board Member of the Danish National Research Foundation, Rector of the Danish Research Academy, Chairman of the Danish Natural Science Research Council and the Danish Council for Development Research. Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen was member of the Danish Prime Minister's Growth Forum and member of the Africa Commission, Vice-Chairman of the Danish Research Commission, and member of several OECD expert review teams and other international review and advisory panels on higher education and research.

Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen is Mag. Scient. (Magister Scientiarum) in botany from AU (1971) and was Dean of the Faculty of Science at AU (1976-79) before he became professor at P. Universidad Católica, Quito, Ecuador (1979-81). Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen has spent 18 years working abroad, 12 of these as Lead Specialist at the World Bank in Washington D.C. (1993-2005).


Personal data

Date of   birth: 8 November 1946 Place of birth: Nordby, Island of Fanø, Denmark


Civil status

Married   to Helle

Three   children: Jens Christian, PhD in Biology; Katrine, MSc in Political Science;   Niels, MSc in Political Science


Office address 

Building   1328, office 132

Bartholins   Allé 16

DK-8000   Aarhus C


Phone: +45   23382126



Private address 

Valdemarsgade 42

DK-8000 Aarhus C


Phone: +45 23382126




Magister   Scientiarum in Botany and Phytogeography, Aarhus University


MSc   studies in Biology, University of Copenhagen


Undergraduate   studies in Geology, Geography and Biology, Aarhus University



Fluent:   Danish, English and Spanish

Comprehension:   Swedish, Norwegian and Portuguese

Reading   knowledge: Italian, German, Dutch and French



Academic career


Executive Director of the Sino-Danish Center


High Level   Advisor to the Rector, Aarhus University


Rector, Aarhus University


Lead Higher Education Specialist, The World Bank


Rector, the Danish Research Academy


Professor, P. Universidad Catolica, Quito, Ecuador


Associate Professor, Aarhus University


Assistant   Professor of Botany, Aarhus University



Leadership positions


Founding Chairman of the Danish Nature Fund


Chairman,   National Committee of Research Infrastructure (NUFI) 


Chairman Universities Denmark’s working group for Ilisimatusarfik, University of Greenland


Chairman Universities Denmark’s working group for cooperation with Universities in Developing Countries


President, Euroscience


Vice President, European University Association (EUA)


Commissioner, Danish Prime Minister's Growth Forum


Chairman, Nordic Universities Association


Commissioner, the Danish Africa Commission


Universities Denmark, Chair Committee on Development Cooperation


Vice-Chairman, Nordic Universities Association


Vice-Chairman, The Danish Universities


Vice Chairman, FEAS (Real Estate Developing Company)


Vice Chairman, INCUBA Science Park


Chairman, AUFF (Private Research Foundation and Holding Co.)


Vice Chairman, Board of Trustees, Moesgaard Museum (MOMU)


Vice-Chairman, Danish Government's Research Commission


Chairman, Board of Trustees, Centro Internacional para Agricultura Tropical, Cali, Columbia


Chairman, Board of Trustees, International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome


Chairman, Danish Strategic Environment Research Programme


President, Nordic Academy for Advanced Study


Chairman, Nordic Environment Research Program (Nordic Council of Ministers)


Chairman, Council for Development Research (RUF), DANIDA, vice-chair 1987-1990


Chairman, Nordic Post Doctoral Training Program


Chairman UniConsult International (fund)


Chairman, Nordic Research Training Program (Nordic Council of Ministers)


Alternate Chair, the Fulbright Commission


Chairman, joint committee of the Danish Research Councils


Chairman, Science Research Council (SNF), vice-chair 1987-90


Director, Botanical Institute, Aarhus University


Chairman, Local Public School Board, Lystrup, Denmark


Dean, Faculty of Science, Aarhus University


Vice-Dean, Faculty of Science, Aarhus University


Vice-Chairman, Botanical Institute, Aarhus University

Board Memberships


Member, Advisory Board of IESCHE, Saudi Arabia


Board member, Governing Board, Gothenburg University Sweden


Board member, Advisory Board, Center für Hochschule Entwicklung (CHE), Germany


National Representative to European Strategic Forum on Research Infrastructure (ESFRI)


Board member, Advisory Board of Estoril Conferences, Portugal


Member, Advisory Board of Cantabria Campus International (CCI), Spain


Board member, Rectors' Advisory Group (Coimbra Group)


Board member, INCUBA A/S


Delegate, Nordic Prime Minister's Globalization Forum


Board member, International Advisory Board, Universidad de Cantabria, Santander, Spain


Board Member, Columbus, Paris


Member, Denmark's EU Special Committee on Research


Board Member, European University Association (EUA)

2008-2012Board Member, EuroScience Governing Board
2005-2009Member, Regional Growth Forum, Central Jutland Region
2004-Board member, International Advisory Board, UANL, Universidad Aútonoma de Nuevo Leon, Mexico
2000-2006Danish National Research Foundation, Board of Directors
1992-1993Management Committee, Human Capital Development and Mobility Program (EU)
1991-1997Board of Trustees, International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome
1991-1993Board member, Danish Center for Plant Biotechnology

Board member, International Food Science Center (A/S)

1991-1993Board member, Danish Informatics Network in the Agricultural Sciences (DINA)
1990-1993Council for International Development Cooperation (DANIDA)
1989-1992Board member, Danish Environmental Research Institute (DMU)
1987-1990Committee of Technology Fellowships (ATV)

Board member, Nordic Post Doctoral Training Program (chair 1990-91)


Man and the Biosphere Committee (UNESCO-MAB)

1986-1993Science Committee, the UNESCO National Commission
1986-1993Danish Rectors' Conference
1985-1987European Science Research Councils Conference (ESRC)
1985-1987Nordic Science Cooperation Board (NOS-N)
1985-1989Coordination Committee for Higher Education and Research in Denmark
1985-1987Danish Research Policy Council (PRF)
1984-1993Council for Development Research (DANIDA)
1984-1986Nordic Science Publication Board (NOP-N)
1982-1985Joint Committee for Bio-Molecular Techniques, Danish Research Councils
1982-1985Chairman of the steering committee of the Natural Areas Research-Initiative SNF
1982-1990Danish Natural Science Research Council (SNF)
1978-1979Nordic Reference Group for Environmental Education
1977-1979National Committee for Higher Education in Science (FLUNA)
1976-1979Senate, Aarhus University
1974-1979Senate, Faculty of Science, Aarhus University
1972-1975Board member, Botanical Institute, Aarhus University

National Coordination Committee for Biological Sciences, Ministry of Education

1965-1968Students' Council, Aarhus University

External evaluation committees


Education Policy Review, Chile, OECD


Institutional Accreditation (EKKA) of University of Tartu, Estonia


MAC review for Fondation Canadienne pour L’ Innovation, Ottawa, Canada


Evaluation of the Norwegian Program for Capacity Development in Higher Education, NORAD, Norway


Panel on mergers of technical universities, HEA (Higher Education Agency) Ireland


Collaborations, alliances and mergers in higher education, HEFCE, United Kingdom


HEA strategic review of Higher Education in Ireland


Review of the Regional Innovation System, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, OECD


Review of the Regional Innovation System, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, OECD


Enhancement of Research Capacity Program, Tanzania and Kenya, DANIDA

1991-1992Strategic Analysis in S&T: Innovation in Agro-Biotechnology. EU
1990S&T Manpower Development Program for the Republic of the Philippines, World Bank
1990University Development Program for Ethiopia, SAREC
1989-1990Marine Science Development Program for Indonesia, Danish Government
1989-1993EU Research Program in Science and Technology for Developing Countries
1989-1993Research-AID-Panel, DANIDA
1987-International Foundation for Science (IFS), Permanent Scientific Advisor, 1989
1986-1989"Ib Henriksen" prize review panel
1986Coordinator of the International Peer Review of Danish Research in Hydrobiology, PRF (Research Planning Council)
1984-1988Evaluation (IFAD-Rome): Africa wide biological cassava-pest control program, DANIDA
1984-1987Steering committee of research project in Margrethe-kog, artificial seawater lake, SNF
1983-1984Evaluation committee for research professor in Plant Bio-Molecular Techniques, SNF
1982-1987Steering committee for European Documentation System (EDS) in Taxamony, ESF (European Science Foundation)
1982-1986Evaluation committee: The biology, molecular biology and biochemistry of Xanthomonas species in relation to their pathogenicity in tropical crop plants, DANIDA
1982-1985Evaluation committee: Effects of burning on the carrying capacity of Miombo, DANIDA
1982-1985Steering committee of the Danish Wadden Sea Research Initiative SNF
1977International review of British University teaching in biology, British Council

Manager of World Bank   Projects 1993-2005, total portfolio approximately USD 3.5 billion

Argentina: 34091-AR   Higher Education Reform Project, 1995-2004 (USD 297 million)

Brazil: 38947-BR   Support of Science and Technology Reform Project, 1997-2004 (USD 300 million)

Chile:(i)   88498-CL Tertiary education Finance for results Program, 2005-2012 (USD   120-150); (ii) 77282-CL Science for the Knowledge Economy Program 2003-2010   (USD 100-120); (iii) 63386-CL Millenium Science Initiative LIL, 1998-2003   (USD 18 million); (iv) 55481-CL Higher Education Reform Project, 1998-2005   (USD 240 million)

Colombia:74138-CO   Higher Education Access Project, 2002-2008 (USD 332 million)

Mexico: (i)   89865-MX Technology and Innovation Project, 2005-2009 (USD 500 million); and   (ii) 44531-MX Knowledge and Innovation Project, 1997-2006 (USD 600 million)

Venezuela: 66749-VE   Millennium Science Initiative LIL, 1999-2005 (USD 8 million)

Indonesia: (i)   85374-ID Higher Education Sector Reform Program, 2005-2009 (USD 108 million);   (ii) 16575-ID Quality of Undergraduate Education Project, 1997-2004 (USD 109   million); (iii) 15498-ID Development of Undergraduate Education Project,   1996-2003 (USD 103 million); (iv) 12841-ID University Research Graduate   Education Project,1994-2001 (USD 112 million)

Iran: 37000-IN   Private Higher Education Development Project, 1995- cancelled (USD 288   million)

Jordan: 36001-JO   Higher Education Development Project, 1997-2003 (USD 66 million)

Romania: 15525-RO   Reform of Higher Education and Research Project, 1996-2002 (USD 63 million)

Peer   reviewer of WB projects in Cameroon, China, Egypt, Hungary, India,   Kazakhstan, Kenya, Mozambique, Philippines, Poland, Tunisia, Uganda, Vietnam,   and Mongolia

Congress activity

Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen has been an invited speaker at numerous conferences - among others – Hamburg, (Challenges for universities, HTLUC, 2015), Paris (21st. century universities, CPU, 2015), Copenhagen (University reforms, DNA, 2015), Riyadh (Higher education reforms, IESCHE, 2015), Madrid (Reforming universities, Univ. Alcala, 2015), Prague, Czech Republic (Are graduates fit for purpose? IAU, 2015), Oslo, Norway (Early career researchers, ALLEA, 2014), Paris, France (Universities of the Future, Futuris, 2014), Copenhagen, ( Science in Europe, ESOF, 2024), Washington, USA (INORMS conference, 2014), Barcelona, Spain (The new University, 2014), Louvain, Belgium (Louvain4 Initiative, 2013), Xian, China (Euro-Asia Economic Forum (EAEF) 2013), Paris, France (Universities of the Future, Futuris, 2013), Hamburg, Germany (Denmark’s University Reforms, HRK-NUS, 2013),  Vienna, Austria (Strategy Forum, 2013), Estoril, Portugal (EC, 2013) Dublin, Ireland (EISRI, 2013), Lund, Sweden, (LU, 2013), Copenhagen (HLS Folketinget, 2013), Berlin, Germany (Leadership in Universities, ALS, 2012), Dublin, Ireland (Trinity C, 2012), Galway, Ireland (The Case of Aarhus University, UG, 2012), Tallin, Estonia (Making a Strong University Stronger, ERK, 2012), Lisbon, Portugal (PRK, 2012), Dublin, Ireland (the Case of Aarhus University and Reforms in Denmark, RIA, 2012), Dublin, Ireland (Reforms of Doctoral Education, EUA-CDE, 2012), Hannover, Germany (New Governance and Funding Model, VWS, 2012), Stockholm, Sweden (Strategy to Reform, Karolinska, 2011), Maastricht, the Netherlands (EEU, 2011), Paris, France (Reforming Universities, CPU-DU, 2011),  Shanghai,  China (World Class Universities-SJTU, 2011), Beijing, China (Beida, 2011), Jiangsu,  China (Chinese Foreign University Presidents Forum, 2011), Padova, Italy (Strategic Management of Universities, Coimbra G-RAG, 2011), Gothenburg, Sweden, (Strategies to Win the Best, NUS-HRK, 2011), Vienna, Austria (New Funding Models, UV, 2011), Sao Paulo, Brazil  (Strategic Partnership Brazil-Denmark USP, 2011), Sevilla, Spain (Life-Long-Learning, EUA-CRUE, 2011), Palermo, Italy (UP-EUA, 2010), Copenhagen, Denmark (Strategy towards the Future, DEA-DI-DU, 2010),Santander, Spain (Mergers and Governance Reforms, Univarsidad de Cantabria, 2010), New York, USA (Transatlantic Dialogue, 2010), Levanger, Norway (The Norwegian Association of Higher Education Institutions, 2010), Fredericia, Denmark (the Danish Minister of Science, Technology and Innovation Dialogue Forum, 2010), Amsterdam, The Netherlands (OECD Review, 2010), Cartagena, Columbia (Higher Education Dialogue Meeting, 2010), Stuttgart, Germany (Konstanzer Wissenschaftsforum, 2009), Bogotá, Columbia (2009), Madrid, Spain (Spanish Members of Parliament, 2009), Washington D.C., USA (The Danish Prime Minister's Africa Commission meeting with World Bank leadership, 2009), Leuven, Belgium (Benchmarking Seminar, 2009), Leiden, The Netherlands (Leiden Ranking Symposium, 2009), Berlin, Germany (Forum on Internationalization of Sciences and Humanities, 2008), Kiel, Germany (Governance of Modern Universities, 2008), Vienna, Austria (2008), Santander, Spain (2008), Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso (Danish Prime Minister's Africa Commission, 2008), Indonesia (Education Knowledge Exchange Series, 2008), Reykjavik, Iceland (NUS, 2008), Uppsala, Sweden (Ministers Council for Science and Education, 2008), Brussels, Belgium (Reforms and University Autonomy, 2008),Stockholm, Sweden (Nordic Research and innovation Seminar, 2008), Berlin, Germany (2008), Bogotá, Columbia (2008), Vienna, Austria (2007), Trondheim, Norway (2007), the European University Association's (EUA) annual conference (Hamborg 2006) and EUA-AAE-CHEA transatlantic dialogue conference (Barcelona 2006).

During tenure in Washington (1993-2005) represented the World Bank and presented key notes at international conferences, for example: Innovation in the development process: A new look at theory, evidence and policies(Barcelona 2005); Globalization and Innovation Congress (Monterrey 2004); Unesco Congress on Higher Education Reform (Brasilia 2003); IAOHE Congress on Internationalization of Higher Education, (Veracruz 2003); OECD Congress on Globalization and Knowledge Economies (Brasilia 2002); The Islamic Academy of Science World Congress (Teheran 2001); OECD Congress on S&T for Development (Seoul 2000); the World Science Congress(Budapest 1999); and the World Congress on Higher Education (Paris 1998).




135 research publications - 41 on issues in higher education, science and technology, innovation and globalization and 94 on botany. In addition: a substantial number of congress presentations, abstracts, and notes to the Danish National Encyclopedia.



Selected papers on higher education, science and technology, innovation and globalization:


Holm-Nielsen, L.B. 2015: What is at the horizon for European Universities? In Horizon 2031 - The University of Granada in Light of its V Centenary. “Reflections on the Future of the University”, Granada, 2015

Holm-Nielsen, L.B. 2015  Forword: September 2015, Pan European Networks, Brussels

Holm-Nielsen, L.B. 2014 (Interview): Europe's Human Capital, Science & Technology, Issue 12, pp. 22-25, September 2014, Pan European Networks, Brussels

Holm-Nielsen, L.B., Gårdhus, Anders Borchorst, 2014: Preparing for new horizons, Science & Technology, Issue 10, pp. 19-21, March 2014, Pan European Networks, Brussels

Holm-Nielsen, L.B., K. Thorn, J. Dørup Olesen, T. Huey, 2013: Talent Development as a University Mission: the Quadruple Helix, Higher Education Management and Policy, OECD 24.2

Holm-Nielsen, L.B., 2013: Universiteterne skal bidrage til løsninger på de store udfordringer, pp. 69-74 in Framtiden börja nu – antologi för dialog om den svenska högskolan 2030, Sveriges universitets- och högskoleforbund (SUHF), Stockholm

Holm-Nielsen, L.B. 2013: Making a Strong University Stronger, Change Without a Burning Platform, p. 78-87 in Wang, Cheng and Liu: Building World-Class Universities, Sense, Rotterdam

Holm-Nielsen, L. B. and K.C. Warming, 2012: Research Fundraising Strategies Raabe, Berlin

Holm-Nielsen, L.B., 2010: Leadership and Governance in Higher Education, Raabe, Berlin

Warming, K.C. and Holm-Nielsen, L.B., 2009: Designing institutional internationalisation policies and strategies. In:Internationalisation of European Higher Education, supplement no. 2, Raabe, Berlin

Holm-Nielsen L.B., 2008: Reforming Denmark's universities for the global market: A report on strategic steps to meet global competition for talent, Strategies to Win the Best: German Approaches in International Perspective, Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung/Foundation, Berlin

Thorn, K. and Holm-Nielsen, L.B., 2008: International mobility of researchers and scientists - Policy options for tuning a drain to a gain, UNU-WIDER, Helsinki

Holm-Nielsen, L.B. et al., 2005: Internationalization of Higher Education in Latin America, the way ahead, Directions in Development WB/OECD, 650 pp. Washington/Paris

Thorn, K., Holm-Nielsen, L.B. and Jeppesen, J.S., 2004: Approaches to Results-Based Funding in Tertiary Education - Identfying Finance Reform Options for Chile, WB Policy Research WP 3436:1-24

Holm-Nielsen, L.B., Brunner, J.J., Balan, J. and Thorn, K, 2004: The Internationalization of Higher Education In Latin America and the Caribbean - WB/OECD/IMHE, 25. pp. Washington/Paris

Crawford, M.F. and Holm-Nielsen, L.B., 2003: Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela: Higher Education Sector Profile - WB/ESW (Green), 1-73, Washington

Holm-Nielsen, L.B., 2003: Tertiary Education in Colombia - Paving the way for Reform, W/ESW (RED), 1-205, Washington

Holm-Nielsen, L.B., Blom, A. and Garcia Zuniga, P., 2003: Providing Skills for the Knowledge Economy - the World Bank in Tertiary Education in Latin America and the Caribbean, EnBreve 19, 1-4

Hansen, T., Agapitova, N., Holm-Nielsen, L.B., and Vukmirovic, 2002: The Evolution of Science & Technology: Latin America and the Carribbean a Comparatice Perspective, WB/LCSHD-WP80, 1-101, Washington

Salmi, J., Hopper, R., Holm.Nielsen, L.B. eds. 2002: Constructing Knowledge Societies: New Challenges for Higher Education - Directions in Development/WB, 1-213, Washington

Holm-Nielsen, L.B., 2002: Higher Education in Brazil - Challenges and Options, WB/ESW (RED), 1-183, Washington

Blom, A., Holm-Nielsen, L.B. and Verner, D., 2001: Education, Earnings, and Inequality in Brazil - Implications for Education Policy, Peabody Journal of Education, 76, 2/4, 180-221

El-Khawas, E., DePietro-Jurand, R. and Holm-Nielsen, L.B., 1998: Quality Assurance in Higher Education: Recent Progress, Challenges Ahead - World Bank/Unesco, 1-22, Paris

Holm-Nielsen, L.B., Crawford, M.F. and Saliba, A., 1996: Institutional and Entrepreneurial Leadership in the Brazilian Science and Technology Sector - setting a new agenda, WB Discussion Papers 325, 1-62, Washington

Crawford, M.F., Eisemon, T.O. and Holm-Nielsen, L.B., 1995: Interactive Technology and Electronic Networkds in Higher Education and Research: Issues and Innovations, WB/HCOWP62, 1-18, Washington

Eisemon, T.O. and Holm-Nielsen, L.B., 1995: Reforming Higher Education, Higher Education 29, 22 pp, (Kluwer), Amsterdam

Eisemon, T.O. and Holm-Nielsen, L.B., 1994: Développement d'une capacité de recherche et de formation scientifque supérieure: l'expérience de la Banque Mondiale

Selected scientific publications

Haynes R.R. and Holm-Nielsen, L.B., 2009: Limnocharitaceae, Flora of the Guianas, 168, 113-116

Haynes, R.R. and Holm-Nielsen, L.B., 1994: Alismataceae, Flora Neotropica, Monogr: 64, 1-112

Haynes, R.R. and Holm-Nielsen, L.B., 1992: Limnocharitaceae, Flora Neotropica, Monogr: 56, 1-34

Holm-Nielsen, L.B. et al. 1989: Tropical Forests, Dynamics and Diversity, 394 pp Academic Press

Holm-Nielsen, L.B. et al. 1988: Passifloraceae - in Harling and Andersson, Flora and Ecuador 31, 130 pg.

Holm-Nielsen, L.B. et al. 1987: Reforestacion de los Andes Ecuatorianos con Especies Nativas, Quito, 118

Holm-Nielsen, L.B. and Haynes, R.R., 1986: Alismatidae - in Harling & Sparre, Flora of Ecuador, 26, 1-83

Larsen, K. and Holm-Nielsen, L.B., 1979: Tropical Botany, eds. 453 pp. Academic Press



Botanical Fieldwork

Leader of   fieldwork in Ecuador 1968, 73, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, and 86

Scientific work

Plant collections: 23,000 (Ecuador) deposited in Quito, and in several major international herbaria (Paris, Madrid, London, Hamburg, Stockholm, Copenhagen, Aarhus, New York, Missouri); member of editorial board of the Flora of Ecuador project (1973-93); member of Commission of the Flora Neotropica project (1977-93). Board (1981-88). Secretary (1985-88); Peer reviewer for NSF, Systemac Botany, Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, Flora Neotropica, Acta Zooligica Fennica, Annals of Missouri Botanical Garden, Ambio; editor of Naturens Verden special issues on Science research (1982-91).





University   teaching: photytaxonomy, morphology and anatomy (undergraduates); phytotaxonomy   and geography, tropical botany and biology (graduates); and principal adviser   to 22 thesis projects;

Visiting lecturer: Gothenburg (1972, 73, 75, 76, 81, 82); Stockholm   (1972, 73, 77); Uppsala (1973, 88); Kew, London (1976, 82); New York (1979, 88); Florida (1979); Mexico (1985); Alabama (1985,86); Utrecht (1986); Lectures at the Danish University Extension 1971-86; 

External examiner in Biology at the Danish Teacher Training Colleges 1977-81.




Received the World Bank's outstanding performance award 2000, WB-spot award 2001, 2002. "Limprisen", 1984; Member of the International Advisory Board for Universidad Autonoma de Nueva Leon, Monterrey 2, Mexico, 2005; Honorary member of Instituto Ecuatoriano de Ciencias Naturales; Miembro Correspondiente de la Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana; Member of international advisory board the Colca Foundation, Arequipa, Peru; Fellow of the Linnean Society of London; the Danish Academy of Natural Sciences (DNA); Academy of Technical Sciences (ATV); member of the Society of Science and Letters, Aarhus, Denmark.