Effects of vitamin D and its metabolites on cell viability and Staphylococcus aureus invasion in bovine mammary epithelial cells

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Vitamin D has been found have various biological effects that may be potent in preventing bovine mastitis. Two forms of vitamin D, vitamin D2 (D2) and vitamin D3 (D3), can be hydroxylated to functional metabolites in cattle. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effects of D2 and D3 compounds on bovine mammary epithelial cell proliferation and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) invasion.. Results showed that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2 have an anti-proliferation activity comparable to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, while D2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (25(OH)D2) was slightly more potent than D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) in inhibiting MAC-T cell viability in vitro. S. aureus growth was inhibited by high concentrations of D2, D3, 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3. 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 induced CYP24A1 expression but reduced VDR mRNA expression, whereas the expression of CYP27B1, occludin, and E-cadherin did not change. Additionally, the induction of CYP24A1 expression by 25(OH)D3 was higher than that of 25(OH)D2, which may contribute to the differences in anti-proliferation activity. S. aureus invaded into MAC-T cells and universally inhibited gene expressions. MAC-T cells pre-treated with 25(OH)D2 reduced S. aureus adhesion while pre-treatment with 25(OH)D3 inhibited S. aureus invasion, but neither of the compounds attenuated the S. aureus-induced gene expression reduction. In conclusion, the present study showed that D2 compounds have comparable effects on cell proliferation and bacterial invasion to their D3 analogues in vitro, suggesting that D2 and its metabolites may also be effective in the defense against bacterial infection.
TidsskriftVeterinary Microbiology
Sider (fra-til)245-251
StatusUdgivet - maj 2017

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