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Jasper Theodore Koning


Jasper Theodore Koning

Antifouling biocides: Leaching, degradation and fate

All underwater structures are prone to colonization by fouling organisms, such as algae and small invertebrates. The growth of fouling will have impacts on the colonized surface; these effects may be especially adverse in the case of boats. Boats affected by fouling growth will have a rougher surface area and an increase in weight and are therefore required to use more fuel, in order to compensate for the additional drag. Moreover, removing fouling from hulls is a costly and labor consuming activity.

A common approach to prevent fouling growth is the addition of biocides to paint. These antifouling paints rely on the use of inorganic zinc or copper. Moreover, these paints may contain organic booster biocides to be effective to those organisms that are resistant to the inorganic copper and zinc. There is a high risk of these booster biocides to leach out to the aquatic environment, since they are in direct contact with water. However, data is lacking for many of the booster biocides, especially regarding their environmental fate. 

Project aim:

In the project we aim to elucidate the environmental fate of the booster biocides in antifouling paints. Firstly, we aim to explore degradation and transformation rates of the booster biocides, through hydrolysis, biodegradation and photodegradation. Secondly, we aim to monitor the antifouling booster biocides, to gain a better understanding on use and actual environmental concentrations. Finally, we aim to understand the leaching process of the booster biocides. 


Project: Antifouling biocides: leaching, degradation and fate.

Supervisors: Prof. Kai Bester & Ulla E. Bollmann

Previous education: MSc Environmental Chemistry & Toxicology, VU Amsterdam

ID: 117581538